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The SSN (social security number) and Salary data might be important to protect However, we need users to be able to retrieve names and phone numbers What do we do We create a View on the following columns:
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We grant Select permission on the View, but not on the underlying table Now users can execute queries against the View and get employee phone numbers, but do not have access to the sensitive data
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8: Database Security
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Stored procedures and functions have similar permissions These are outlined in Table 8-5
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Alter Control Execute Take Ownership View Definition
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Can execute ALTER statements Full control on the object just as an owner would have Allows execution of stored procedure or function Enables the ability to take ownership Once owned, the user has full control on the object Can execute commands to view metadata on the object
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Table 8-5 Stored Procedures and Functions Permissions
Functions also have the References and Select permissions These work the same way in a function as they would in a table or a view For the most part, these permissions are intuitive They work the way you d expect them to work In the first exercise in this chapter, we saw that granting Execute permission on a stored procedure without granting Select permission on the underlying table is enough to grant access If you have some time, do some testing for yourself Create four separate stored procedures one each for SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements on a brand-new table in a brand-new database Grant a new user access to the database with no permissions other than Execute on the stored procedures that you create Table 8-6 outlines the results you ll find
Stored procedure contained Permissions on table Results
SELECT statement only INSERT statement only UPDATE statement only DELETE statement only
None granted None granted None granted None granted
Executing stored procedure succeeded Executing stored procedure succeeded Executing stored procedure succeeded Executing stored procedure succeeded
Table 8-6 Stored Procedure Permission Results
What this proves is something that isn t intuitive but still very important:
Execute permission on the stored permission is all that is needed to read or modify data on underlying tables Specific permission is not needed on the underlying table
MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide
For example, consider an Employee table that includes SSN and salary data In our earlier example, we used a VIEW to access just the key columns We could also create a stored procedure to retrieve an employee name and phone number based on some type of input (such as an EmployeeID or Name) We grant Execute permission to the stored procedure, but no additional permissions are required on the underlying table
Execution Context
This topic came up in 5, but deserves some clarification here In SQL Server 2005, we have the ability to specifically identify the execution context of stored procedures, triggers, and many functions In other words, we can specify which user s account will be used when the module is run While execution context concepts apply to all these modules, let s focus our discussion on a stored procedure It will work the same way for other modules Consider this scenario On a regular basis we import data into a staging table from an external database Immediately before importing the data, we truncate the staging table We use a stored procedure to do this; a DBA will execute the stored procedure In this case, either the DBA needs elevated permissions to truncate the staging table and import the data, or the stored procedure needs elevated permissions However, since there isn t a Truncate permission available, we d have to grant the DBA ALTER permissions on the database to allow him to truncate the table Instead of granting ALTER permissions, we use the Execute As clause, in effect creating our own specialized permissions The Execute As clause has several contexts that the stored procedure can be configured to run under The choices are:
User Name Caller Self Owner User Name This specifies that the stored procedure will run under the context of any specified database user or server login Caller This specifies that the stored procedure will run as the user that executes the stored procedure In this case, the user executing the stored procedures must have all the required permissions on all referenced objects Caller is the default for stored procedures when the Execute As clause is not added Self This specifies that the stored procedure will run under the context of the user creating or altering the stored procedure Self is the default for queues Owner This specifies that the module will run under the context of the owner of the module If the module doesn t have an owner, the owner of the schema of the module will be used
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