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9: Server Security
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6 Create an SQL Server login using the GUI with a weak password: a Right-click Logins and select New Login b In the Login Name box, enter GUILoginWeakPW c Select SQL Server Authentication and enter a password of abc in the Password and Confirm Password boxes d Uncheck the Enforce Password Policy box Notice this deselects the other password policy boxes e Click OK Since we are bypassing the password policy, the account is created 7 Create an SQL Server login using the GUI with a strong password a Right-click Logins and select New Login b In the Login Name box enter abc c Select SQL Server Authentication and enter a password of abc in the Password and Confirm Password boxes d Ensure the Enforce Password Policy and Enforce Password Expiration boxes are checked Deselect User must change password at next login e Click OK This should fail with a message similar to Figure 9-8 On the Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio dialog box, click OK On the Login New page, click Cancel
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Figure 9-8 Failure message indicating password is not complex enough
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CAUTION If you re learning SQL Server on a Windows XP system, be aware that you will receive inconsistent results related to the Password Policy It does work as advertised on a Windows Server 2003 system This exercise is failing because the password is the same as the username, but if you do some experimenting on Windows XP (for example, use a password of def ), you ll find that all of the password complexity checks are not selected Windows Server 2003 uses the NetValidatePasswordPolicy API, which checks all elements of the password, but this API is not available on Windows XP 8 Create an SQL Server login that uses T-SQL statements with a weak password using the following script:
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CREATE LOGIN TSQL_LoginWeakPW WITH PASSWORD = 'password', CHECK_POLICY = OFF
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9 Create an SQL Server login using T-SQL statements with a strong password:
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CREATE LOGIN TSQL_LoginStrongPW2 WITH PASSWORD = 'P@ssw0rd'
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EXAM TIP The default for CHECK_POLICY is On if it is not provided in the script This conforms with Microsoft s SD3+C security philosophy 10 View the logins you created: a In the SSMS Object Explorer, refresh the Logins container by right-clicking over Logins and selecting Refresh b Double-click the TSQL_LoginWeakPW user that was created with the CHECK_POLICY=OFF clause Your display should look similar to Figure 9-9 Notice that the Enforce Password Policy setting is not checked
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Figure 9-9 User created with the CHECK_POLICY = OFF clause
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c Double-click the TSQL_LoginStrongPW user that was created without the CHECK_POLICY clause Notice that the Enforce Password Policy setting is checked
9: Server Security
Server Roles
In the previous chapter, we saw that a database has several built-in database roles By adding a user to one of these roles, we automatically granted the user the associated privileges granted to the database role We have similar roles at the server level By adding a login to a server role, we automatically grant the user all the associated privileges associated with the server role Server roles with short descriptions are listed in Table 9-1
Server role Description
SysAdmin
Allows full access to anything and everything within the SQL instance Members of the BUILTIN\Administrators Windows group (local administrators) are automatically a member of the sysadmin role Within a domain, the domain admins group is automatically added to the local administrators group Can modify serverwide configuration options and shut down the server Can manage logins and login properties including resetting passwords Can GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE permissions at the server level and database level Can run the BULK INSERT command Can CREATE, ALTER, DROP, and RESTORE any database Can terminate processes running on SQL Server Can add and remove linked servers Can execute some stored procedures Can manage disk files
ServerAdmin SecurityAdmin
BulkAdmin DbCreator ProcessAdmin SetupAdmin DiskAdmin
Table 9-1 Server Roles
Two roles that stand out are the sysadmin role and the serveradmin role Their differences are important, but may not be obvious EXAM TIP Make sure you understand the differences between the sysadmin role and the serveradmin role The role that grants full access to the server is the sysadmin role The serveradmin role grants the ability to manipulate server settings, but can t do server-level actions such as creating a database Think of the sysadmin role as having keys to the entire SQL kingdom Membership in this role grants full access to the instance The serveradmin role is a little less intuitive Based on the name, you might think that you can do anything as a member of this role, but you can only modify settings Notice, I stopped short of saying full access to the server when talking of the sysadmin role Why is that Remember in 1 when we introduced instances One of the primary reasons to create a separate instance is to have a security separation A user in the sysadmin role in the default instance has full and complete control over that instance However, if a separate named instance were created, the first user would have zero access to that named instance Each instance has its own set of server roles that only apply to the instance, not the full server
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