Publisher Metaphor in VS .NET

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Replication centers on a Publisher metaphor It includes Publishers, Distributors, Subscribers, articles, publications, and subscriptions Figure 10-17 shows the relationship of Publishers, Distributors, and Subscribers Notice that Subscriber 1 has a two-way arrow to the Distributor It s not as common, but Subscribers can sometimes publish data back to the Publisher
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Figure 10-17 Publishers, Distributor, and Subscribers
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Subscriber 1
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For example, consider a company that has a very large database (20GB) The billing department needs only the information on the customers and invoices from the past year The primary database can be configured as a Publisher A publication can be created that includes articles such as the Customers table and a filtered view on the Invoice table The publication can be sent to the Distributor (a process on the same server as the primary database) and then sent to the Subscribers in the billing department Of course, the question Why comes to mind What s the benefit Instead of sending the entire 20GB database to the billing department, we can send them just the articles they need the customer table and an invoice view This is shown in Figure 10-18
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Figure 10-18 Sending articles in a publication
Customers Invoices Distributor
Customers Invoices
Publisher
Billing Dept
Publisher
The Publisher is the source of the data This is the database that makes its data available to others through replication Publishers define what they publish through a publication Just as in the real world, a Publisher can have more than one publication
10: High-Availability Strategies
Distributor
The Distributor is often the same as the Publisher, but could be a different database instance and could even be on a different server than the Publisher The Distributor knows who to send the data to and sometimes acts as a queue for data being sent from the Publisher to the Subscribers
Subscribers
Subscribers receive the replicated data This is a database that uses publications from the Publisher to keep itself up to date Just as in the real world, Subscribers can subscribe to multiple publications from multiple Publishers Subscribers can also send data back to the Publisher or publish data to other Subscribers
Article
Articles are the actual database objects included in the publication, such as tables, views, stored procedures, indexes, and more In the real world, a magazine could have multiple articles; a publication can also have multiple articles Articles can be filtered when sent to Subscribers Filtering can be used to restrict the columns and/or the rows of data sent to Subscribers EXAM TIP When choosing articles for publication, you should also consider the objects you ve created to optimize them For example, if indexes were created to optimize the performance of queries against specific tables, you should consider including these indexes in the publication If they are omitted, the queries could perform poorly on the Subscribers
Publication
A publication is a group of articles for a database Just as a real-world publication will group SQL Server articles in an SQL Server magazine, and gardening articles in a gardening magazine, publications are used to group like articles Articles aren t distributed individually, but instead as part of a publication
Subscription
Subscriptions are used to request specific publications The subscription defines the publication that will be received, when, and where Subscriptions can be configured as push subscriptions or pull subscriptions Pull subscriptions are initiated by the Subscriber Push subscriptions would normally be initiated by the Publisher, but could also be initiated by the Subscriber
Replication Methods
The three methods of replication are snapshot, merge, and transactional Each method has its own strengths The method you choose depends on the physical replication environment, the type and quantity of data to be replicated, and whether the Subscriber can update the data
MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide
All replication types begin by synchronizing objects between the Publisher and Subscriber(s) This is often done with a snapshot, which is a copy of all the objects and data specified by the publication The snapshot quickly gets the Subscriber up to speed with the data, and the rest of the replication process is involved with keeping it up to date as the Publisher data changes It s possible to only do snapshot replication If the data rarely changes, perhaps a new snapshot once a month is enough to keep it up to date Transactional replication tracks changes through the transaction log Merge replication tracks changes through triggers and metadata tables
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