Creating Alerts in .NET

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Creating Alerts
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An alert is a predefined response to an event Alerts can notify an operator or execute a job A big part of understanding alerts is realizing that the SQL Server agent is constantly monitoring the application log Consider Figure 13-9
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Figure 13-9 SQL Server Agent
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Operator SQL server Event Application log SQL server agent
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Events are generated by SQL Server and entered into the Windows application log The SQL Server Agent is constantly watching the application log When an event is logged, the agent reads it and compares it to the alert list If an alert is defined for the logged event, then SQL Server Agent goes into action It checks to see if either an operator or a job is configured for the alert If so, the SQL Server Agent notifies the operator or executes the job Some errors are logged by the system, and user-defined errors can be logged with the raiserror command within a T-SQL script When using the raiserror command, you can append it with the WITH LOG option to force the error to be logged into the application log This allows the SQL Server Agent to inspect it Error messages have severity levels Severity levels from 0 through 18 can be specified by any user Severity levels from 19 through 25 can only be specified by members of the sysadmin fixed server role Severity levels from 20 through 25 are considered fatal Error messages with a severity level of 10 are informational Severity level 11 through 16 messages indicate errors that can be corrected by the user SQL Server includes many predefined messages Message numbers 0 through 50,000 are reserved with these predefined messages Database administrators can create their own messages, but they must start with message numbers over 50,000 The syntax to create a message is
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exec sp_addmessage 50100, 16, 'Users cannot be deleted from the database', 'us_english','True','Replace'
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Notice the message number is 50100, a number greater than 50,000 The severity level is 16 an error that can be addressed by the user The text can be whatever we want, but it s best to make it as clear as possible to the user The 'True' indicates the message will be logged in the application log, and the 'Replace' indicates that if a 50100 message exists, replace it with this one To raise the error, we can use the raiserror statement as follows:
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raiserror (50100, 16,1)
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If the message wasn t created with True to force the message to be logged, we can use the WITH LOG statement in the raiserror statement to force it to be logged It would look like this:
raiserror (50100, 16,1) WITH LOG
SQL Server Agent can also be configured to respond to Performance events and Windows Management Instrumentation events as shown in Figure 13-10 Performance events are based on the same objects and counters in System Monitor, but instead of creating Performance alerts, we create SQL Server Agent alerts In the previous lab, we created an operator In this lab, we ll create an SQL Server Agent alert
13: Database Administrator Tools
Figure 13-10 SQL Server Agent responding to Performance and WMI events
Job Operator WMI events Performance events Alert list SQL server agent
Exercise 133: Creating an SQL Server Agent Alert 1 If SSMS is not open, open it and create a new query window by clicking the New Query button 2 Enter the following T-SQL script to create an error message:
exec sp_addmessage 50101, 16, 'Part number %d needs to be reordered', 'us_english','true','replace'
Notice that we have added the %d This allows a decimal variable to be passed into the message when the error is raised 3 Right-click Alerts and select New Alert 4 In the Name box, enter Order Parts Leave the SQL Server event alert selected 5 Change the Database Name to AdventureWorks In the Error Number box, enter 50101 Your display should look similar to Figure 13-11
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