MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide in .NET framework

Encode QR Code in .NET framework MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide

MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide
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add triggers so that every time an item is added, or the quantity or cost is modified, the ExtendedCost is recalculated based on the OnHandQty and the ProductCost fields This would no longer be in 3NF because the ExtendedCost is dependent on the OnHandQty and ProductCost fields instead of PartID Said another way, ExtendedCost is redundant data; it already exists Some level of denormalization is very common in both Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) databases and Online Analytic Processing (OLAP) databases TIP Denormalization is sometimes referred to as flattening a database This is because denormalizing a database sometimes reduces the number of tables
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Constraints
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While primary keys and foreign keys are constraints themselves, we have other types of constraints that we can add Just as with PKs and FKs, other constraints help us to maintain and ensure different levels of data integrity
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The different types of constraints we have beyond PKs and FKs are:
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DEFAULT Definition This constraint is used when entering data with an INSERT CHECK This constraint is used when entering or modifying data with INSERT or UPDATE UNIQUE This constraint allows a field besides the PK to be enforced as unique
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EXAM TIP Make sure you are very familiar with DEFAULT and CHECK constraints They are very valuable on the job, and you can expect to see them on the tests The text and exercises in this section are designed to help solidify the knowledge you need to successfully pass this portion of each of the three tests
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Default Definitions
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DEFAULT definitions are only applied when a new row is added If a DEFAULT is defined on a column and no data for the column is included with the INSERT, then the DEFAULT is used For example, let s say that your company is in the state of Hawaii and 99 percent of your employees live in Hawaii You could create a DEFAULT for the State column in the Employee table that specifies the state of HI Now, whenever an employee is added to the Employee table, you can leave the State column blank and the state will default to HI
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3: Database Design
Exercise 33: Create and Test a Default Definition 1 Create a DEFAULT Definition on the State table by running the following script:
USE 3; GO ALTER TABLE dboAddress ADD CONSTRAINT State_HI_def DEFAULT 'HI' FOR State
2 Add a new address line, but leave the state blank: a In SSMS, right-click the Address table in the 3 database and click Open Table b Put your cursor in the last row in the AddressLine1 column and enter 232 Turning Court Press TAB twice and enter Honolulu as the City Press TAB twice and enter 96801 as the Zip Notice we are not entering data into the State column c Click the X to close the table d Right-click the Address table and click Open Table Notice that the State has been entered as HI for Hawaii TIP In the previous exercise, a DEFAULT is created as part of the table definition Defaults can also be created externally from the table, just as a user-defined data type can be created externally and then bound to the table For example, we could create a DEFAULT for a state as HI and then bind this default to the Address table However, this is no longer recommended Microsoft has deprecated this feature in SQL Server 2005 Instead we create DEFAULT definitions on the table by using the CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE commands
Using Defaults with NULL
Another place that DEFAULT definitions can be very useful is when adding columns to a table with the NOT NULL definition If you try to add a column to a table with data using the NOT NULL argument, it will fail The only way to succeed is by adding a DEFAULT definition to the ALTER statement EXAM TIP A key point here is that DEFAULT definitions are valuable to use when you are adding new columns that won t accept NULL data It is simply not possible to add a column using NOT NULL if the table has existing data unless you use a DEFAULT definition The following exercise shows how adding a column using NOT NULL will fail without the DEFAULT, and then how the DEFAULT definition will allow it to succeed
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