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Execute the INSERT statements several times to add several rows for each user into your table
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MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide
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3 Now we ll create a user-defined function that can identify if a user has ever logged in, and more, how many times the user has logged in:
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USE 5; GO CREATE FUNCTION dbofn_CountLogins(@UserName varchar(50)) RETURNS int AS BEGIN Declare @Logins int SELECT @Logins = COUNT(*) FROM AuditAccess WHERE UserName = @UserName Return @Logins END;
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EXAM TIP User-defined functions can be used to return scalar information (a single answer) based on queries that review multiple rows (even millions of rows) 4 To execute the function, use the following script:
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DECLARE @UserName varchar(50); SET @UserName = SUSER_SNAME(); SELECT dbofn_CountLogins(@UserName) AS 'Self'; SELECT dbofn_CountLogins('Hoot') as 'Hoot'
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You should see a display similar to Figure 5-3
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Figure 5-3 Output from user-defined function
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I love stored procedures We can do wonderful, powerful, seemingly magical things with stored procedures While some people argue that SQL isn t a true programming language, with stored procedures we get pretty darn close
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5: Advanced Database Objects
A stored procedure can have as many or as few lines of code as you need to do the job It can include variables, transactions, complex error messages, DDL or DML statements, and much more You can pass parameters in, and get data back as either scalar values or table-type result sets from stored procedures Stored procedures can be used to optimize network usage because instead of sending hundreds of lines of T-SQL code to a server, we can send one line to execute a stored procedure On the server, SQL Server optimizes stored procedures by identifying the best plan to use to run them, and then caching the plan for reuse the next time it s run Stored procedures can be created with T-SQL statements or by using a NET programming language as described in the CLR section later Some key benefits of using stored procedures are outlined in Table 5-2
Benefit Description
Hides the complexity of operations Enhances network traffic Enhances security
A single stored procedure can have hundreds of T-SQL lines Instead of sending hundreds of lines of code over the network, a single command and single result are used By using EXECUTE AS, users can be granted execute permission on a stored procedure without the need to grant permissions on any underlying objects Parameterized stored procedures can check parameters for embedded malicious code Stored procedures can be reused as needed after initial creation Stored procedures can call other stored procedures
Protects against SQL injection attacks Adds modularity to SQL Server
Table 5-2 Stored Procedure Benefits
One of the few limitations with a stored procedure is that it can t be embedded within a SELECT statement As a comparison, functions can be embedded in a SELECT statement as:
SELECT dbofn_CountLogins(@UserName) AS 'Self';
However, trying to embed a stored procedure in a SELECT statement results in a syntax error:
SELECT * from sp_helpdb -- will result in error SELECT sp_helpdb as 'HelpDb' -- will result in error
Instead, stored procedures are executed as follows:
Exec sp_helpdb;
System Stored Procedures
SQL Server includes many system-supplied stored procedures with the prefix sp_ It s impossible to know all of them at once, but you will work with more and more of them as your experience with SQL grows
MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Administration All-in-One Exam Guide
One way to familiarize yourself with some of the system stored procedures that are available is by looking at Books Online In the following exercise, we ll use BOL to explore some stored procedures Exercise 53: Looking Up and Using System Stored Procedures 1 Open up Books Online by clicking Start | All Programs | Microsoft SQL Server 2005 | Documentation and Tutorials | SQL Server Books Online 2 Click the Index tab at the bottom left 3 In the Look For box, enter sp_ You should have a display similar to Figure 5-4 If you re trying to look up a specific stored procedure, this is often the easiest way
Figure 5-4 Using Books Online to find system stored procedures
4 In the Look For box, enter sp_server and double-click the sp_server_info link This opens the help article for the sp_server_info stored procedure The article gives an overview on the stored procedure, the syntax, and then detailed information on the parameters
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