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7: Optimizing Databases
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DBCC commands belong to one of four primary categories, as shown in Table 7-4
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Category Description
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Maintenance Informational Validation Miscellaneous
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Maintenance tasks on databases, indexes, or filegroups Gather and display information on different server or database objects Check on databases and various database objects Miscellaneous tasks
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Table 7-4 DBCC Categories
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Several of the more common DBCC commands are listed in Table 7-5 At a minimum, a successful DBA would be familiar with these Several have been discussed in the text previously
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DBCC Command Description
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CHECKDB CHECKFILEGROUP CHECKTABLE HELP SHOW_STATISTICS OPENTRAN SHRINKFILE SHRINKDATABASE SQLPERF
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Checks the integrity of the database and all the objects in the database This includes allocation, structural, and logical integrity Checks the integrity of all the tables within a filegroup Checks the integrity of a table or VIEW Gives information on any DBCC command Shows current distribution statistics for a specific index Shows information on the oldest active transactions (active, distributed, and nondistributed) Shrinks the size of a data or log file Shrinks the size of the database Shows information on transaction log usage
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Table 7-5 Common DBCC Commands
TIP DBCC CHECKDB (to check database integrity), DBCC OPENTRAN (to check for open transactions within a database), and DBCC SQLPERF (to get information on the transaction log) are still widely used commands within SQL Server 2005 Microsoft has deprecated several DBCC commands Table 7-6 lists several of the DBCC commands you may have used in SQL Server 2000 that are now deprecated Avoid using these
Deprecated Command Alternative Recommendation
INDEXDEFRAG DBREINDEX DBREPAIR SHOWCONTIG
Use ALTER INDEX Use ALTER INDEX Use DROP DATABASE Use sysdm_db_index_physical_stats
Table 7-6 Deprecated DBCC Commands
MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide
Filegroups
The last method of optimizing a database we ll discuss in this chapter is filegroups The majority of databases will have a single filegroup that holds a single file (the mdf file) However, we can add additional files and filegroups to optimize the performance of a database As a reminder, a file is created for the database when the database is created (named databaseName_data, by default) All database objects (tables, VIEWs, indexes, and so on) are physically stored in the file This data file is kept logically in a filegroup By default, the first filegroup is named Primary and is often referred to as the primary filegroup The transaction log is a separate file and is not kept in a filegroup at all While database objects are physically stored in the data file, we can t choose which file an object is stored in, at least not directly What we can do is pick which filegroup a database object is stored in By creating a new file (perhaps on a different drive) and placing it into a new filegroup, we can manipulate where database objects are located In large databases, we can create additional files and/or filegroups for the following purposes:
Performance Placing tables that are frequently joined on separate filegroups (that have files located on separate physical drives) can allow parallel scans from two drives simultaneously Additionally, placing a single large table on one filegroup allows us to move it to a separate physical drive Recoverability Creating multiple files and filegroups, we can create a backup scheme that backs up filegroups Partitioning As discussed in 3, we can create a partitioning scheme that stores some portions of a table on one filegroup, and other portions of the table on another filegroup (using different files on different drives for each of the filegroups)
Filegroup Possibilities
Three possibilities exist for filegroup association with files Understanding these possibilities makes it easier to understand how to use filegroups for optimization The possibilities are:
One file and one filegroup Multiple files and one filegroup Multiple files and multiple filegroups
One File and One Filegroup
Take a look at Figure 7-25 This shows the AdventureWorks database stored on one file: AdventureWorks_datamdf The database file is associated with one filegroup: Primary
7: Optimizing Databases
Figure 7-25 One file, one filegroup
Customer
Employee
Sales
D: drive AdventureWorks_datamdf
PRIMARY Filegroup
In this scenario, we can t control where database objects will be stored They will all be stored in the AdventureWorks_datamdf file, which is in the Primary filegroup This is the scenario that the majority of databases will use It is only when they become very large that we need to look for optimization strategies
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