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Cross-Database Ownership Chains
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A cross-database ownership chain can exist when ownership chaining is allowed between different databases within an instance This is disabled by default, but if it was enabled it would work like Figure 8-35
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Figure 8-35 A cross-database ownership chain
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Portfolio database
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vwEmployee (owned by Sally)
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Both databases in same instance
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In Figure 8-35, we can see that Sally owns the VIEW vwEmployee in the Employee database and also owns the Sales table in the Portfolio database In this case, she could grant ownership to the vwEmployee VIEW and users would not need additional permissions on the Sales table Instead, Sally s ownership would be chained between the objects in the databases Again, this is disabled by default To enable cross database chaining on an instance, you can use the following command:
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ALTER DATABASE AdventureWorks SET DB_CHAINING ON
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Once this command is executed, you can verify that the option has been changed by looking at the Options property page of the database It should look like Figure 8-36
8: Security
Notice that this option is dimmed indicating it can only be viewed on this page, not changed from this page
Figure 8-36 Cross-Database Ownership Chaining Enabled set to True
EXAM TIP To enable ownership chaining between databases in a single instance of SQL Server, enable cross-database ownership chaining on each database involved in the chain This option should be set on each database involved in the chain Only members of the sysadmin role can modify the DB_CHAINING setting As an alternative, crossdatabase ownership chaining can be enabled on the instance and it will be applied to all databases on the instance Setting it at the instance can be done on the Security property page of the instance, as shown in Figure 8-37
Designing an Execution Context Strategy
The topic of designing an execution strategy came up in 6, but deserves some clarification here In SQL Server 2005, we have the ability to specifically identify the execution context of T-SQL code that is run We did this in Exercises 83 and 87 using the EXECUTE AS clause It can also be done within stored procedures, triggers, and
MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide
Figure 8-37
Enabling cross-database ownership chaining on the Server instance
many functions In other words, we can specify which user s account will be used when the code is run While execution context concepts apply to all these modules, let s focus our discussion on a stored procedure It will work the same way for other modules Consider this scenario On a regular basis, we import data into a staging table from an external database Immediately before importing the data, we truncate the staging table We use a stored procedure to do this and a DBA will execute the stored procedure In this case, either the DBA needs elevated permissions to truncate the staging table and import the data, or the stored procedure needs elevated permissions However, since there isn t a Truncate permission available, we d have to grant the DBA ALTER permissions on the database to allow him to truncate the table Instead of granting ALTER permissions, we use the EXECUTE AS clause, in effect creating our own specialized permissions for this code The EXECUTE AS clause has several contexts that the stored procedure can be configured to run under The choices are:
User Name Caller
8: Security
Self Owner
User Name This specifies that the stored procedure will run under the context of any specified database user or server login Caller This specifies that the stored procedure will run as the user that executes the stored procedure In this case, the user executing the stored procedures must have all the required permissions on all referenced objects Caller is the default for stored procedures when the EXECUTE AS clause is not added Self This specifies that the stored procedure will run under the context of the user creating or altering the stored procedure Self is the default for queues Owner This specifies that the module will run under the context of the owner of the module If the module doesn t have an owner, the owner of the schema of the module will be used So how could we create our stored procedure for the staging table We have multiple possibilities Obviously, whoever executes the stored procedure needs Execute permissions on the stored procedure Other EXECUTE AS permissions are shown next
Execute As User_name We would define the stored procedure using the Execute As User_name clause, and designate a user with appropriate permissions on the staging table Anyone with the Execute permission on the stored procedure could execute it Execute As Caller Ensure the DBA executing the stored procedure has appropriate permission on the staging table Only someone with the ALTER permission on the staging table could successfully execute the stored procedure that truncates it Execute As Self Ensure the person who created the stored procedure has appropriate permissions on the staging table Anyone with the Execute permission on the stored procedure could execute it Execute As Owner Ensure that the owner of the schema of the stored procedure has appropriate permissions on the staging table Anyone with the Execute permission on the stored procedure could execute it
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