barcodelib.barcode.rdlc reports.dll 2: SQL Server 2005 Database Basics in .NET framework

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2: SQL Server 2005 Database Basics
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The word schema has gone through a change in meaning within Microsoft s SQL Server 2005 I m not a doctor, but we could almost say schema has a split personality In past versions, any time we referred to schema we were referring to the definition of the database or a database object For example, the VIEW option WITH SCHEMABINDING refers to ensuring that any dependent object definitions are not changed As we saw earlier in this chapter, WITH SCHEMABINDING is present in this version, so in this context, schema refers to the definition of the object Schema can also be found in the four-part naming structure of objects, and in this context, it refers to the name of a container or namespace (a term NET developers are familiar with) of objects (In past versions of SQL Server, it was the owner) A significant difference is that in past versions, individual users would be assigned ownership of objects and the object would be named with the username For example, a VIEW created and owned by the user named Joe would be named JoevwEmpSalary In SQL Server 2005, we add users to database roles and grant the roles ownership of schemas that contain groups of objects Instead of using usernames (such as Joe) in the name of the object, we use the schema in the name of the object
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As a database developer, you will be writing T-SQL statements that refer to objects such as tables, views, and stored procedures Each object has a formal four-part name, though this is often shortened to a shorter one- or two-part name The four-part name has the following format: Serverdatabaseschemaobject For example, for our Phone view in the 2 database on a server named MCITPSuccess, the name would be MCITPSuccess2dbovw_EmpPhone In this case, we are using the default schema of dbo, which refers to database owner
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The only time we specify the server is when we re trying to connect to a server external to the SQL Server that we re executing the query on We can do this when accessing data on linked servers For an ad hoc query (a query that s just going to be performed once and doesn t need a linked server created) against external OLE DB data sources, we can use the OPENROWSET or OPENDATASOURCE functions
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This part of the object name is the database we want to access If using the query window, often we employ the USE statement to set our context or to point to the database When including the database in the query, it would look like this:
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Select * from 2dbovw_EmpSalary
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MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide
Notice that the server is omitted, so the query would use the local server instead of looking for an external server that we ve created as a linked server We can also prefix a query with the USE command to set the context of the database as follows:
USE 2; GO Select * from dbovw_EmpSalary
Schema
We use schemas to group together database objects with a common purpose As mentioned earlier, you can also think of the schema as a container We use a schema to grant access to a group of users based on their role membership For example, let s say we have a group of database administrators who manage all of the database objects related to sales We could group these DBAs into a server role named SalesRole, as shown in Figure 2-12
Figure 2-12 Adding users to a role and adding the role to a schema
SalesRole database role Sales DBAs
Sales schema
Object
Object
Now we can create a Sales schema, which will act as a container or namespace for all the Sales objects To grant the Sales DBAs access to the objects in the Sales schema, we would assign ownership of the SalesRole role to the Sales schema, granting them full access If a new DBA is hired, she could easily be added to the SalesRole and be automatically granted access to the objects in the Sales schema If one of the current Sales DBAs were to win the lottery and move on, you could easily remove him from the SalesRole without impacting any functionality This overcomes a significant problem we had in earlier versions of SQL Server Before, if an employee who was assigned as an owner left the company, we couldn t drop the user until we reassigned ownership By changing ownership, all queries that referenced the original owner would be broken To get around this, Microsoft previously recommended that all objects be owned by one owner dbo (database owner) This limited our flexibility By using schemas to group objects and assigning roles as the owner of a schema, we can add and drop users at will We can even change the ownership of a schema by assigning different roles Throughout all these changes, the schema will remain constant
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