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Sometimes, we may want our result sets ranked into some type of order Such wishes are beyond a simple ORDER BY clause, which merely returns it in an order Instead, we want a numerical output that shows exactly what the rank of each row is SQL Server 2005 provides four ranking functions that can be used to numerically rank the output They are:
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RANK DENSE_RANK ROW_NUMBER NTILE
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The data displayed from the database are the same for each ranking function What changes is the Ranking column produced by the different functions The difference in the RANK, DENSE_RANK, and ROW_NUMBER functions are based primarily on how duplicates are treated NTILE divides the result set into a given number of groups For example, let s imagine that we issued a query against a Sales database listing top sales people using the different ranking functions Table 4-11 shows how the output would look
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Row SalesPerson MonthlySales RANK DENSE_ RANK ROW_ NUMBER NTILE(3)
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Table 4-11 Comparison of RANK, DENSE_RANK, ROW_NUMBER, and NTILE
The Row column is listed just for discussion purposes and wouldn t be part of the query Notice that rows 2 and 3 have identical Monthly Sales, but other Monthly Sales are different The Rank column starts at 1 for the first row, and as long as the values are different, it will increment by one Since rows 2 and 3 are the same, the rank of these rows is the same However, the rank function still increments the value, so row 4 has a rank of 4 The rank of 3 is skipped since we had two ranks of 2 EXAM TIP If you want a numerical ranking and want the duplicate values to be counted in the ranked output so the ranking numbers are skipped, use the RANK function If you don t want ranking numbers to be skipped, after duplicate values are encountered use the DENSE_RANK function DENSE_RANK is the same as the RANK function except values aren t skipped even if there s a tie For example, rows 2 and 3 both have a rank of 2 The next row is listed with a rank of 3 The ROW_NUMBER simply lists the row numbers The values aren t evaluated for ties Once an ORDER BY clause defines the order, the ROW_NUMBER function simply assigns row numbers NTILE divides the rows into groups, or buckets Looking back at Table 4-11 we can see the result of the NTILE(3) function NTILE(3) divides the five rows into three groups Group one has two rows, group two has two rows, and group three has one row Note that NTILE doesn t care about the values; rows 2 and 3 have identical totals but are divided into different groups Instead, NTILE is primarily concerned with evenly dividing the number of rows as equally as possible In our example from Table 4-11, we have 5 rows, so 5 divided by 3 = 1667 Rounded up, we have two rows per group with only
MCITP SQL Server 2005 Database Developer All-in-One Exam Guide
one row left for the last group If instead we used NTILE(2), then we would have two groups The number passed to NTILE defines how many groups we want and should be less than the total number of rows The syntax of each of the functions is shown in the following code listing Notice that they all use the partition_by_clause and an order_by_clause The NTILE function is the only function that receives an argument
RANK ( ) OVER ( [ <partition_by_clause> DENSE_RANK ( ) OVER ( [ <partition_by_clause> ROW_NUMBER ( ) OVER ( [ <partition_by_clause> NTILE (integer_expression) OVER ( [ <partition_by_clause> ] <order_by_clause> ) ] <order_by_clause> ) ] <order_by_clause> ) ] <order_by_clause> )
The optional <partition_by_clause> divides the result set produced by the FROM clause into partitions The ranking function is then applied to the separate partitions If the <partition_by_clause> is omitted, the ranking function is applied to the entire result set The <order_by_clause> determines the order in which the ranking function values are applied The <order_by_clause> is not optional and must appear in the ranking function In the following exercise, we ll take a look at some queries using the ranking functions Exercise 410: Use Ranking Functions against the AdventureWorks Database 1 Open SSMS and then open a new query window 2 Enter and execute the following query to return information on four specific customers Notice that the partition_by_clause is omitted, so the ranking function applies to the entire result set
SELECT CustomerID, SalesOrderID, SubTotal, RANK() OVER(ORDER BY SubTotal DESC) AS Rank FROM SalesSalesOrderHeader WHERE CustomerID IN (599, 514, 638, 72) ORDER BY SubTotal Desc
Your result set should look similar to Figure 4-21
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