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Netstat (network statistics) is a command-line tool you can use to view protocol statistics and TCP/IP connections currently open on your computer Just as with most command-line tools, you can modify the behavior of Netstat with the use of switches Table 7-2 shows several of the switches available with Netstat
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Table 7-2 Netstat Switches
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Switch Description
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Displays all connections and listening ports Displays the name of the program that created the port Displays Ethernet statistics Displays Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) Displays addresses and ports in numerical form Displays the owning process ID Shows connections for a specific protocol Shows the routing table Shows statistics on a per-protocol basis Displays the current connection state
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Switches are entered with a dash (-) or a slash (/) and then the letter of the switch Multiple switches can be entered together They are entered with only a single dash or slash, and then the letters without any spaces For example, if you wanted to view a listing of all connections and listening ports (switch a), with the process ID of each (switch o), you would enter the following command:
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Telnet is a command-line program that can be used to check for open ports on other computers For example, if you want to verify if a specific port is open, you use Telnet to try to connect to that port You can install Telnet by clicking Start | Control Panel In the Control Panel, select Programs and click Turn Windows Features On or Off If the User Account Control dialog box appears, click Continue Select the Telnet Client feature as shown in Figure 7-17 The Telnet Server feature is not needed unless you want other users to connect to your system using Telnet (which would be rare)
Figure 7-17 Enabling the Telnet Client feature
Once it is installed, you can use the Telnet client to connect to specific ports on remote computers If you can successfully connect to the port, then the port is open If you can t connect to the port, the port is not open For example, imagine your network had a server named Exch1 running Microsoft Exchange including the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) SMTP operates on port 25 You could use the following command to connect to the SMTP service on the server
telnet exch1 25
7: Configuring Network Access
Using Telnet to Impersonate an E-mail Sender During a vulnerability audit done within a company, the security expert used a Telnet client to connect to the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) service He then used this connection to send an e-mail to several employees He set the sender s address as the CEO of the company with the subject line as Urgent He then included in the body of the e-mail something like this: We have experienced some problems with several employee accounts indicating that they have been compromised We have experts in the building and we need to verify these accounts as quickly as possible Please send me your account name and password as soon as possible so we can address this problem Almost half of the employees that received the e-mail sent their account name and password This is a sophisticated phishing attack (since it occurred from within the network), but it is a phishing attack nonetheless While this shows how Telnet can be used to verify an open port (SMTP in this case), it also reminds us we need to constantly repeat the message to users to never give out passwords Never
If your connection is successful, you have verified that port 25 is open and the SMTP service is running If your connection is not successful, it could be because the server is not reachable Often you would first use the ping command to check connectivity as follows:
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