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Name resolution is the process of resolving names to IP addresses If someone asked you the IP address of msncom, you probably wouldn t know it There s really no need to know the address Instead, you know the name (msncom), and if you type that into a Web browser, the site appears However, what happens under the hood is that DNS is queried for the IP address and then the connection is made Within a network, there are two types of names and seven types of name resolution You should be aware of them all
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Two types of names
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The two types of names found on internal networks are host names and NetBIOS names Host names are much more common, and NetBIOS names are falling into disuse, but you still need to be aware of both
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Host names A host name can be as long as 255 characters, though it is usually limited to only 15 characters by administrators Host names are the only type of names you ll find on the Internet, but you will also find them on internal networks with NetBIOS names
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5: Configuring Network Connectivity
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NetBIOS names NetBIOS (short for Network Basic Input/Output System) names are found on internal networks, though their use is declining The NetBIOS name is limited to only 15 readable characters, with the 16th byte identifying the service running on the computer Computers will usually have several NetBIOS names registered based on the services running on the computer
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The NetBIOS name is typically the same as the host name The difference is that the host name can be more than 15 characters For hosts with host names longer than 15 characters, only the first 15 characters are used The host name is truncated You can see this in Table 5-6
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Table 5-6 Long Host Names Truncated as NetBIOS Names
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Host Name NetBIOS Name
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Since the host name is longer than 15 characters, the NetBIOS name truncates the host name The result is that two computers have identical NetBIOS names, which will cause problems if NetBIOS name resolution is needed This is why host names are usually limited to 15 characters, even though they can be as long as 255 characters Originally NetBIOS names were needed because it was possible to automate the registration of NetBIOS names with a NetBIOS server such as Microsoft s WINS server, but it was not possible to automate the registration of host names with DNS When Windows 2000 was released, Microsoft introduced dynamic update or dynamic DNS on internal networks With dynamic update, clients are able to automatically register a client s host name and IP address with DNS Figure 5-13 shows the automated name registration method used with WINS This method was the primary method used with clients before Windows 2000, but it is still used in some instances today
Figure 5-13 Name registration with WINS
WINS DHCP
Registration
Client1 Pre-Windows 2000
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When Client1 (a pre Windows 2000 DHCP client) turns on, it receives TCP/IP configuration information from the DHCP server The information includes the IP address of the WINS server Client1 then registers its NetBIOS name (Client1) and new IP address with the WINS server If any client queried the WINS server for the IP address of Client1, WINS would answer with the correct IP address Figure 5-14 shows the automated method of name resolution with DNS Today (and since Windows 2000 was released) internal DNS servers have been able to accept updates just like the WINS servers Dynamic update of DNS servers is only done on internal DNS servers DNS servers on the Internet are updated manually
Figure 5-14 Name registration with DNS
DNS DHCP
Registration
Client2 Post-Windows 2000
When Client2 turns on, it receives its information from DHCP and then registers its name and IP address with DNS If any other clients query DNS for the IP address of Client2, DNS answers with the correct address While host names and NetBIOS names are treated differently within a network, they often look the same For example, any name could be both the host name and the NetBIOS name of the client The difference is in how applications treat the names An application will expect the name to be either a host name or a NetBIOS name and will try to resolve it accordingly This is the reason that WINS servers are still required in networks today Many applications still expect the name to be a NetBIOS name and still try to resolve the name using NetBIOS methods With Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, there are fewer applications using NetBIOS methods, but some applications still exist, so some networks will continue to use WINS
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