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The majority of the ISPs currently maintain practices that are considered unheard of in the older wireline voice service provider or wireless service provider community This refers to the frequently used ISP practice of taking the ISP network nodes off-line for maintenance The older wireline voice service providers (the local exchange carriers) have a legacy of service that dates back to the nineteenth century, where service had to be maintained 24 hours a day, seven days a week The wireless carriers, although not as old as the wireline carriers, have a philosophy of service that is the same as their wireline brethren The mere thought that a customer could be removed deliberately from service on a periodic basis for maintenance was and still is considered heresy The reader should note that state regulatory agencies monitor the wireline carriers and not the ISP Therefore, the standard of service for the ISP is lower Remember that from the user s perspective and the regulatory agency s perspective, the standard of service is based primarily on availability, not bandwidth Most user complaints about an
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ISP are not about the bandwidth provided or the speed, but about the inability to gain access to the ISP Not too long ago, in the late 1990s, a very large national e-mail ISP encountered the busy signal problem Users would call into the ISP and discover that they could not reach the provider because the ISP modems were busy The user s inability to access this ISP resulted in lost business, and the ISP received bad national press over the issue of inaccessibility (constant busy tones over the user s modem) A NMS would have been a massive help; of course, a NMS can only be employed if the ISP owns the physical network Modems can report to a NMS where all lines to them are active; therefore, the modem cannot provide anymore service Industry standardization (Transmission Management Network (TMN) standards) notwithstanding, NMSs and practices are considered highly proprietary among service providers An efficient NMS and set of practices may be the difference between a service provider s ability to show profit or none at all NMSs enables a service provider to operate efficiently, control network element functions, and provide visibility to alarm conditions The Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC) is a type of carrier that was created as a result of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 The opening of the local loop has enabled new entrants into the business of providing local exchange services One of the challenges that these CLECs have been facing is in the area of network management An ISP is a type of CLEC: in other words, a data CLEC Starting up a CLEC forces one to focus on very specific areas of need first These areas of need are identifying the market, business plan, marketing, core product, sales, and revenue Unfortunately, network management was the last aspect of the business to focus on for many of the early ISPs ISPs do not usually require a sophisticated NMS early in an ISP s operation; however, one should not expect to be in business for long unless a type of NMS is in place Network management enables an
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ISP to monitor a network and network element health and occupancy (level of activity) Figure 1-6 depicts the functions of network management SUBSCRIBER BILLING SYSTEMS Service providers of all types need to be paid for the services rendered All networks must record usage by the subscriber and bill the subscriber for the usage Billing can be a function of usage volume, call volume, destination, or feature invocation Service providers can offer service based on a variety of different parameters and subscriber activities These parameters and subscriber activities may include calling party pays plans, toll-
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