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The topic of network interconnection is a separate topic that requires a separate book alone Further information on network interconnection can be found in my book Telecommunications Internetworking
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A relationship exists among the number of trunks, the financial cost of the direct route and alternate route, and the total dollar cost for serving the given offered load The high usage facility cost is proportional to the number of high usage trunks If no high usage trunks are available, all of the traffic must be sent on the alternate route, making the incremental alternate route
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money cost high If a high usage group is available, the incremental cost of the alternate route is lower because theoretically, less traffic is sent over the alternate route The cost of alternate routing decreases the minute the first trunk is added to the high usage trunk group The flip side of this cost picture is that a point is drawn where too many high usage trunks exist in the high usage group As more high usage trunks are added to the high usage group, each additional high usage trunk will theoretically carry less traffic, while each alternate route trunk will continue to carry a significantly larger amount of traffic At some point, it becomes cost prohibitive to add any more high usage trunks Network costs are a component of any decision in building a network No matter how much route diversity is built, a point is drawn where a network provider must claim enough is enough Today, ISPs require national network providers in order to go from point A to point B ISPs need to pay these longdistance providers for the privilege of interconnection ISPs cost structures can blossom beyond all expectations resulting in bankruptcies The various routing schema described is applicable to networks of different service providers A set of rules that defines how the flow of information is managed between networks must be present This does not refer to signaling protocol like TCP/IP, but rather the management process of sending information between networks Regardless of the regulated or non-regulated nature of any information service provider, a methodology of how information is sent from point A to point B must be enforced Today, some ISPs own the servers in a local area, but do not own the transmission media connecting the servers In fact, some companies transport information across the nation yet do not have visibility to the consumer (the individual) The methodology behind the flow of information affects how the information will be transported and who it will be transported by, which ultimately impacts the cost of the network Figure 4-10 illustrates the need to understand the financial aspects of planning a network
Internet Technology and Service Provisioning
Other Costs Servers Software Data Archiving
Total Money Cost High Usage
Alternate Route
N Number of High Usage Trunks
FIGURE 4-10 Network costs
TRANSMISSION PLAN One should always keep the following in mind in relation to transmission facilities:
Should I lease or buy What is the initial capital outlay for owning the transmission facility What are the maintenance costs What are the recurring fees (if you do not own the transmission facility) How do I get to point B from point A with minimal financial exposure
One cannot overstress the importance of financial awareness in the managing of any business Technology and ideas are important to a business, but money pays the bills
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In the case of non-voice telecommunications networks (that is, data or the Internet), a pattern appears to the way network information flows Currently, ISPs need to connect to a LEC in order to transport their call/information from one point to a point outside of, or even inside the LEC s jurisdiction Even in the current world of the Internet, the flow of information from an ISP to another ISP maintains order Once the routing schema has been determined, the following questions should be asked about the network and the number of connections required:
What are these connections What transport technologies and protocols are available to support the network configuration What type of transmission facilities should be used
The aforementioned questions comprise the transmission plan When a call is made, data and video are transmitted, and whether it is wireless or landline-based, facilities are used for transmitting the call These facilities are also called transmission facilities Transmission facilities can be broken down into the following basic types:
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