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THE ONE-WAY CIRCULATION: VALVES TELL THE STORY
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Fine, the inquisitive student may persist, but how do we know that the blood really circulates through these vessels in the rst place The appropriate response to this question is, Because of the pioneering work of William Harvey
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Before Harvey came Galen
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William Harvey was an English physician who lived from 1578 to 1657 Before Harvey, the major understanding of how the blood circulates was largely false The concept was based on the ancient teachings of Claudius Galen, a philosopher, a physician, and the very rst physiologist Review of 1 will help you recall that Galen is often called the Father of Experimental Physiology [Thinking probe: Try to translate the word physiologist into its common
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Heart, Blood Vessel Disorders
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Fig 83 Galen cuts open the left ventricle of the heart
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English meaning The suf x is one that you have encountered several times!] And a quick look at Figure 83 will remind you that Galen carried out many dissections upon living animals Very important among these living body functions is the pumping of blood by the heart Galen thrust a knife into the left ventricle (VEN-trih-kul) of a pig lying on a dissection table A ventricle is a little belly like cavity at the bottom of the heart The blood came strongly spurting out of this cut, thereby proving that blood was stored and pumped out of the heart under a great pushing force: the blood pressure (BP) Further, Galen showed that the arteries carry blood, not just air, as the earlier Greek scholars had mistakenly assumed (The word, artery, originally meant air-keeper in Greek!) The problem, though, was that Galen didn t think that the blood actually circulated through the body! Instead, he maintained that the blood pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart was light arterial (ar-TEER-e-al) blood, which was eventually absorbed and transformed into more body esh! And the dark venous (VEE-nus) pertaining to (-ous) vein (ven) blood was part of a separate circulation that began in the liver
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Moving Our Blood and Air
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One-way valve (opens upward)
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Pulmonary arteries to lungs
One-way valve (opens downward)
Fig 84 An overview of the pulmonary (right heart) circulation
Harvey makes a theory based upon one-way valves
For almost 2,000 years after Galen, no one seemed to seriously question his basic concepts of two separate, unconnected arterial and venous blood vessel systems that didn t circulate No one, except William Harvey! Harvey learned from his anatomy teachers about the presence of one-way valves in the interior of the heart (Figures 84 and 85) There are four chambers within the heart, and four one-way valves At the top of the heart are the right and left atria (A-tree-ah) These serve as small entrance rooms for blood returning to the heart from veins And at the bottom of the heart are the right and left ventricles Figure 84 demonstrates that the entire right side of the heart is the pump for the pulmonary or referring to (-ary) lungs (pulmon) circulation The one-way valve on this side opens and allows blood from the right atrium to be pushed down into the right ventricle The blood from the right ventricle, in turn, is pumped out through a second oneway valve, up into an artery, and then on to the lungs Here, the blood becomes oxygenated ( lled with O2 ) Figure 85 reveals that the entire left side of the heart is a pump for the systemic or referring to (-ic) body systems (system) circulation The one-way valve on this side opens and allows blood to pass from the left atrium down into the left ventricle After the left ventricle contracts, it pushes blood up through a second one-way valve, up into a major artery, and eventually out to the tissues of various body organs (other than the lungs)
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One-way valve (opens upward) Color-in hole, black
One-way valve (opens downward)
Fig 85 An overview of the systemic (left heart) circulation
Summarizing the total circulation, we have:
THE SYSTEMIC THE TOTAL BLOOD = THE PULMONARY + (LH) CIRCULATION CIRCULATION (RH) CIRCULATION (circulation of blood (circulation of blood to, to, through, and through, and from from both lungs ) the organs of all body systems except for the lungs)
Now, Harvey never fully identi ed the pulmonary (right heart) circulation, but he did make the very important point that the heart was the main blood pump He also failed to realize that the capillaries actually connected the arterioles on one side with the venules on the other, thereby making one total blood circulation (Look back at the basic plan of the circulatory system provided in Figure 82, if desired) To quote his own words, This organ [the heart] deserves to be styled the starting point of life and the sun of our microcosm, just as much as the sun deserves to be styled the heart of the world [Suggestion for extra reading: The early Greek concepts of a macrocosm or big universe outside the body, plus a microcosm or little universe inside the human body, are discussed in more fascinating detail within the pages of PHYSIOLOGY DEMYSTIFIED]
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