PART 4 in Visual Studio .NET

Encoding EAN-13 Supplement 5 in Visual Studio .NET PART 4

PART 4
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Moving Our Blood and Air
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Harvey realizes the function of one-way valves in arm veins
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What sold Harvey on the one-way circulation of the blood (aside from the presence of four one-way valves in the heart) was the presence of one-way valves in many medium-sized veins Figure 86 (A) shows the internal anatomy of a medium-sized peripheral (puh-RIF-er-al) vein This name comes from the vein s location on the outer edge (periphery) of the body This vein could be in either the arm or leg Note the presence of several semilunar (sem-ee-LOO-nar) valves These valves are named for the half (semi-) moon (lun) appearance of their aps Part of William Harvey s simple experiment is demonstrated in Figure 86 (B) Step #1: A ligature or tie ( 2) was tightly wrapped around the lower arm, just above the elbow This ligation ( process of tying off ) stopped the one-way return ow of blood toward the heart from the veins in the lower arm As a result, there was an obvious swelling of the veins in the lower arm with unreturned blood In addition, their semilunar valves popped out and looked like swollen knots beneath the skin Step #2: Using a nger, the experimenter pressed upon a vein at a point, P, that blocked return blood ow from the wrist area The portion of the vein located right after the nger-blockage collapsed (sinking back into the skin) This collapsing was due to lack of return blood ow from the wrist [Thinking probe: If the blood in these peripheral veins was owing away from the heart, would the vein at point P still have collapsed Why, or why not ]
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LIGATION FOR CONTROL OF BLOOD LOSS
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William Harvey used ligatures to help us understand the normal direction of blood owing through healthy, undamaged blood vessels But what happens if we get a cut and some of our blood vessels are torn open The result is hemorrhage (HEM-or-uhj) bleeding Uncontrolled and prolonged hemorrhaging (bleeding), of course, can be fatal! Why Because people have a limited total blood volume The total volume of blood in all of the vessels of an adult s body is about 5 to 6 L (liters) This number represents normovolemia (nor-mohvoh-LEE-me-ah) Somewhat similar to the word normothermia, normovolemia represents a blood condition of (-emia) normal (normo-) volume (vol) We can think of normovolemia as representing the maintenance of homeostasis (relative constancy) of our blood volume over time Why is maintenance of normovolemia so important the questioner might probe The answer is that normovolemia helps maintain a normal amount of tissue perfusion (per-FYOO-zhun) This term indicates the process of (-ion) pouring [blood] over and through (perfus) a tissue This condition may
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Heart, Blood Vessel Disorders
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Semilunar ("half moon") valve flaps
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A peripheral (arm) vein: Internal view
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BLOOD FLOW
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Back towards heart
Real crescent moon Arm veins bulge out (with unreturned blood)
STEP # 1
BLOOD FLOW
Ligature (blocks flow back towards heart) William Harvey
STEP # 2 Point P
(B) Vein after point P collapses
Fig 86 William Harvey and his experiment with the valves of the lower arm veins
(A) Internal anatomy of a peripheral vein, showing a semilunar ( half-moon shaped) valve (B) Harvey demonstrates one-way valves in the lower arm veins with the help of a ligature
alternately be called normoperfusion (nor-moh-per-FYOO-zhun) Adequate tissue perfusion (normoperfusion) supplies suf cient oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to support the healthy metabolism of living tissue cells The blood supply leaving the tissue also provides a medium for carrying away various metabolic waste products, such as CO2
Summarizing, we have:
NORMOVOLEMIA (normal amount of circulating blood volume)
PART 4
Moving Our Blood and Air
NORMOPERFUSION (normal amount of bathing of tissues with blood)
ADEQUATE SUPPORT OF TISSUE METABOLISM
If hemorrhaging or bleeding from a cut vessel goes on for too long, however, so much of the total blood volume will be lost that a state of hypovolemia (highpoh-voh-LEE-me-ah) results [Learning probe: Quickly translate hypovolemia into common English Check with the translation that follows] Hypovolemia is a blood condition of (-emia) de cient or below normal (hypo-) volume (vol ) In hypovolemia, not having enough total blood volume can result in a severe tissue hypoperfusion (high-poh-per-FYOO-zhun) This is literally a below normal or de cient (hypo-) pouring [of blood] through (perfus) the tissues Such a hypoperfusion does not supply adequate nutrients to support normal tissue metabolism The problem is especially severe in very oxygen-dependent organs, such as the brain and kidneys If about one- fth of the total blood volume is lost by hemorrhage (1 to 2 L in an adult), then the result is hypovolemic (high-poh-voh-LEE-mik) shock This severe state of physiological shock can bring on coma (failure of the brain) as well as renal (REE-nal, pertaining to kidney ) failure! Coma and kidney failure, if not quickly compensated for by medical treatment, can lead to death Putting all of this information together in sequence yields:
SEVERE HEMORRHAGE (prolonged or heavy bleeding) HYPOVOLEMIA (deficient blood volume) TISSUE HYPOPERFUSION (greatly reduced blood supply to body tissues)
HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK (widespread organ failure, death)
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