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Administering Unified Messaging Servers
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and provisioning new users and making changes were very difficult A company called Octel really brought voicemail to the masses in the 1990s Although legacy PBXs have the ability to forward calls to other extensions, they do not have the ability to prompt a caller to leave a voicemail or convert the caller s voice to a digital format Prior to voicemail systems, calls had to be routed to phone extensions where dedicated operators resided A number of companies filled this niche for many years by providing organizations with call-answering services In fact, when voicemail systems began to rise in popularity, the telecom companies were prohibited by federal regulations from using voicemail systems in order to prevent them from putting the call-answering services out of business When this restriction was eliminated in the mid 1980s, all the carriers began to offer voicemail solutions Voicemail systems were designed to mimic e-mail systems They provide storage and retrieval mechanisms for voice messages The voicemail solutions digitize the messages left by callers and then replay the messages back to the intended recipients Integrating a PBX with the corporate e-mail system is a logical evolution for voicemail For a voice messaging system to work properly, it must be able to communicate with the PBX and send and receive signals to the PBX and signals to desktop sets (phones) via the PBX Prior to Exchange Server 2007, e-mail systems did not have native voicemail capabilities Prior to Exchange 2007, leaders in the voice industry provided the only Unified Messaging solutions that could store voice messages on an Exchange server
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PBX/Voicemail Architecture
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A PBX allows a few inbound phone lines to be used by a large number of people within an organization by managing and logging each call The PBX is also used by the voicemail solution in the process of storing and retrieving voicemail Many organizations, and possibly yours, will need to connect Exchange 2007 Unified Messaging to a legacy PBX Figure 9-1 shows how the legacy PBX and legacy voicemail systems interoperate
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Legacy PBX TDM Trunks Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
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Voice Message Storage
Phone Ext
Network Interface
Other Voicemail Systems
FIGURE 9-1
Legacy PBX and voicemail
Part III:
Administering Exchange Server 2007
The following walkthrough of the inbound voicemail process will help you understand how the legacy PBX and voicemail systems are integrated: 1 An inbound call from the PSTN comes across a TDM trunk 2 The PBX routes the call to the specified extension 3 When there is no answer after an administrative-defined number of rings, the call is forwarded to a voicemail extension 4 PBX sends a command across the data link to the voicemail CPU, to prompt the inbound call with the target s voicemail message 5 The voicemail CPU instructs the telephone interface to answer the call 6 The CPU application plays the voicemail prompt and the application-specific prompts 7 The CPU application listens for any keystrokes from the caller The voice message is digitized from the incoming analog voice stream Then, when the caller hangs up or specifies the end of the voice message, the CPU application stores the voice message 8 When the call is complete, the voicemail system sends a command to the PBX via the data link to turn on the Message Waiting Indicator for that phone extension A similar process ensues when a person checks their e-mail The key to a sophisticated voicemail system is in the application s ease of use Is it easy to navigate the voice prompts Does the application provide a range of playback and storage options The best systems do that and then some
Voice System Terminology
We have already used some voice system terminology that may seem like a foreign language to an Exchange administrator Reviewing the following comprehensive list of voice system terms will help you during your deployment of Unified Messaging: Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) A term that represents the worldwide collection of publicly available phone networks run by private corporations and governments One connotation of the term implies the circuitswitching (legacy) portion of the public network However, today the PSTN is a combination of both circuit-switching and packet-switching technologies Private Branch Exchange (PBX) Voice system that enables companies to manage incoming calls by sharing a small number of outside phone lines among many internal extensions Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) TDM is used to allow multiple connections to exist on the same circuit-switched network The PSTN still contains many circuitswitched networks Trunk A connection that consists of multiple individual TDM-based links, aggregated to increase the overall bandwidth VoIP trunking A way of providing scalable long-haul phone connections using high-bandwidth WAN connections to interconnect PBXs in a corporation through VoIP gateways This concept is used at the carrier level for the logon hauls between PSTNs H323, SIP, Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), and Inter-Asterisk Exchange (IAX) are some of the supported trunking protocols
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