TRAVERSING AND MODIFYING THE DOM TREE in Java

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CHAPTER 7 TRAVERSING AND MODIFYING THE DOM TREE
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Figure 7 10. Using traverseTree() to convert the text of our list items to lowercase One final note on traverseTree(): although you stepped through child nodes by way of firstChild and nextSibling, you could have done so with lastChild and previousSibling, too. Click the Refresh icon in Firefox to revert the text in the <li> elements to that from our markup, and then simply edit traverseTree(), changing firstChild to lastChild and nextSibling to previousSibling. Click Run to verify that traverseTree() works just as well traversing child nodes in reverse. More often than not, you will traverse child nodes moving forward with nextSibling rather than in reverse with previousSibling. function traverseTree(node, func) { func(node); node = node.lastChild; while (node !== null) { arguments.callee(node, func); node = node.previousSibling; } } var root = document. childNodes[1]. childNodes[1]. childNodes[1]. childNodes[3]; traverseTree(root, function(node) { if (node.nodeType === 3) { node.data = node.data.toLowerCase(); } });
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CHAPTER 7 TRAVERSING AND MODIFYING THE DOM TREE
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Finding an Element by ID
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Traversing the node tree is one way to find an element. But the most direct way is simply to pass Document.getElementById() the id of the element you want to work with. So, click Clear in both Firebug panels and Refresh in Firefox (to revert its display to the original markup). Then retrieve one of the <li> elements by its id: var myLI = null; myLI = document.getElementById("facebook"); // <li id="facebook" class="sprite"> Now that you have an element in myLI, let s do something to it. Hmm. Now let s see. I know, why don t you change the text of its child Text node and then correspondingly update its id myLI.firstChild.firstChild.data = "Bebo"; myLI.firstChild.href = "http://www.bebo.com"; myLI.id = "bebo"; Now verify that Firefox updated its display, as in Figure 7 11.
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Figure 7 11. Finding an element by its id Click Clear in both Firebug panels, and query myLI to verify that JavaScript changed the id to "bebo" from "facebook": myLI; // <li id="bebo" class="sprite"> Then verify that the href attribute was updated, too: myLI.firstChild; // <a href="http://www.bebo.com"> Did everything work for you Great! Now it s time for some notes on Document.getElementById(). First, type its identifier carefully. JavaScript is case sensitive, so getElementByID is not the same as
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CHAPTER 7 TRAVERSING AND MODIFYING THE DOM TREE
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getElementById. Second, if no element in your markup has the desired id, then Document.getElementById() returns null. This is what you ought to expect inasmuch as an Element node is of the object datatype, which is to say its value is stored on the heap. Finally, in the event that more than one element in your markup has the desired id, which is a markup error, Document.getElementById() may return null, or it may randomly return one of the elements. Note that, other than in Internet Explorer prior to version 8, the id parameter is case sensitive in all relevant browsers. Therefore, for our <li> with an id of "twitter", passing Document.getElementById() the parameter "Twitter" returns null in Firefox, Safari, Opera, and Internet Explorer 8+. On the other hand, Internet Explorer 7 or older returns the <li> by mistake. With this in mind, do not give different elements id attributes that vary only by case, such as "sprite" and "Sprite", since Internet Explorer may consider those to be the same id.
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Oftentimes, you will want to do some stuff to elements with the same tag name. Say you want to turn every <li> element with a class of "sprite" into a CSS sprite. Rather than traverse the DOM tree with a function like traverseTree(), simply pass either Document.getElementsByTagName() or Element.getElementsByTagName() a string indicating the tag name of the elements you want, and JavaScript will return a NodeList containing those elements for your scripting pleasure. Take care to note that it is Elements, plural, in getElementsByTagName(), but it s Element, singular, in getElementById(). So, you can call getElementsByTagName() on either an Element or a Document node. What s the difference If you want JavaScript to return all the elements in your markup that have the same tag name, go with Document.getElementsByTagName(). On the other hand, if you just want descendants of a certain element that have the same tag name, meaning you just want to work with a branch of the DOM tree rather than the whole thing, then turn to Element.getElementsByTagName(). Click Refresh in Firefox (to revert the second <li> to "Facebook") and then click Clear in both Firebug panels. Let s try Document.getElementsByTagName() first: var myElements = document.getElementsByTagName("a"); myElements; // [a www.twitter.com, a www.facebook.com, a www.flickr.com, a www.linkedin.com] JavaScript returns a NodeList containing every <a> Element node from the DOM tree. myElements contains four members. Now let s try Element.getElementsByTagName() on just a branch of the tree: myElements = document.getElementById("twitter").getElementsByTagName("a"); // [a www.twitter.com] Verify your work with Figure 7 12.
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