Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Administration for Oracle DBAs in .NET framework

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Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Administration for Oracle DBAs
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There are many background tasks that run in SQL Server, but the following are some of the most common ones that you should be aware of: Lazywriter Data and Index pages can only be accessed after they have been retrieved into the data cache Ensuring that the data cache always has a list of available bu ers into which the pages can be read is important to performance With no list of free bu ers, the data cache would need to be constantly scanned to locate one The lazywriter is responsible for periodically checking the free bu er list and, if the value is below a predetermined threshold (which SQL Server has dynamically set), scanning the data cache to check the usage history of each page If the usage history of the page indicates that it is a candidate for removal, it will be placed on the free bu er list If the page happens to be dirty (that is, it has been modi ed but not yet written to the data le), the lazywriter will also write the page to disk This could be compared to the database writer (DBWn) processes in Oracle Checkpoint The checkpoint process, as in Oracle, is the process responsible for performing checkpoint operations, which consist of scanning the data cache looking for dirty pages to ush to disk Checkpoints can be issued manually with a CHECKPOINT statement or they can be triggered by certain operations, such as a clean shutdown of SQL Server, performing a database backup, or issuing an ALTER DATABASE statement Automatic checkpoints also occur when the database transaction log reaches 70 percent full or the database engine estimates that reprocessing the number of records in the transaction log following a crash is going to take longer than the time speci ed in the Recovery Interval setting The Recovery Interval is the equivalent of the MTTR setting in Oracle Log writer The same concept as the log writer (LGWR) in Oracle, the log writer thread is responsible for writing data to the transaction logs Deadlock/Lock monitor When two threads are deadlocked that is, neither can progress because they are both trying to lock a resource that the other thread already has locked something needs to intervene to resolve the situation The lock monitor thread is responsible for detecting deadlocks and resolving them The lock monitor will wake up every ve seconds to check the system for deadlock situations Upon nding a deadlock, the lock monitor chooses a deadlock victim and terminates it, rolling back any work carried out by the victim The victim is chosen based on which thread has the least estimated cost to roll back the work already carried out A record of the deadlock is recorded in the SQL Server error log After a deadlock has been detected and dealt with, deadlock searches are immediately triggered for the rst few lock wait events in the system following the previous deadlock This is to ensure that if another deadlock occurs in quick succession, the system does not have to wait for the ve-second standard wait interval before being able to deal with it
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2: SQL Server Architecture
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Scheduler monitor The Scheduler monitor is a task that runs continuously, checking the health state of all schedulers Its responsibilities include ensuring that the number of worker threads is balanced across all of the available schedulers It also ensures that work is evenly distributed between the schedulers By keeping track of the workload across all of the schedulers, it is able to update system information that allows new tasks to be routed to the schedulers with the least load Resource monitor As previously mentioned, when SQL Server is left to dynamically use as much memory as it needs on a machine, it can receive noti cations from the Windows OS when it is starting to experience memory pressure The Resource Monitor thread is responsible for receiving these noti cations, as well as internal noti cations when cache areas are under pressure The Resource Monitor is responsible for sending noti cations to the various caches to instruct them to review the amount of memory they require and to reduce the memory usage where possible Other system threads include the network thread responsible for network communication and threads that control background tasks such as automatic shrinking of databases (when enabled), which can be loosely compared to the system monitor process (SMON) SQL Server also has services that are external to the SQL Server engine that in Oracle would normally be background processes Two of the most common ones are SQL Server Agent and the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC) SQL Server Agent is an external service (which is dependent on the SQL Server service) responsible for automation and alerting One of its main functions is the running of jobs, which in Oracle would be done using the job queue (CJQ0) and job processor ( J000) processes MSDTC is a Windows service that SQL Server uses for distributed transactions, which in Oracle would be handled by the recoverer process (RECO) Although you don t have much control over the behavior of most of the background threads in SQL Server, you can see how they are performing by using dynamic management views (DMVs, the equivalent of V$ views) and performance counters Using DMVs and performance counters for performance monitoring and tuning is covered in 8 Memory Before looking at how SQL Server uses memory, it is important to understand how Windows works with memory and how that can differ between 32-bit and 64-bit platforms, as this can have an effect on how SQL Server operates
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