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The T-SQL Language
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Like all commonly implemented relational database management systems, SQL Server allows users to access and manipulate data and modify database objects and behavior using the Structured Query Language (SQL) The SQL language defines several categories of statements, including Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements, Data Definition Language (DDL) statements, and transaction control statements DML statements are used to retrieve and manipulate data As in Oracle, these statements are Action
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In addition, both SQL Server and Oracle provide the MERGE statement to query the database and insert, update, or delete data depending upon the result of the query All relational data access and manipulation in SQL Server, however complex the query, is carried out as a combination of these DML statements; how the Database
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C h a p t e r 6 : D a t a A c c e s s a n d Tr a n s a c t i o n C o n t r o l
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Engine acts to manage this statement execution forms the bulk of the remainder of this section DDL statements, listed next, are used to modify database objects such as tables, views, and stored procedures: Action
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CREATE ALTER DROP
Oracle DBA Q&A
Q: In Oracle, when creating objects it is possible to specify CREATE OR REPLACE, which will overwrite an object if it already exists or create it afresh if it doesn t Does SQL Server have the same functionality A: No, SQL Server does not have a CREATE OR REPLACE statement Instead, the same result is achieved (albeit not as gracefully) by checking whether the object exists and, if so, then dropping it, and if not, then continuing with the CREATE statement The following example shows the code that is used to do an IF EXISTS check, followed by a DROP PROCEDURE if it does exist, followed by the creation Keep in mind, though, that for changing existing tables, views, stored procedures, and functions, the T-SQL ALTER statement is the usual approach
IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM sysobjects WHERE object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[dbo][MyTestProc]') AND type in (N'P', N'PC')) DROP PROCEDURE [dbo][MyTestProc] GO CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo][MyTestProc] AS BEGIN SELECT @@VERSION END;
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Transaction control statements, listed next, give greater control over the work done by batches of DML statements They are discussed in greater detail later in this chapter Type
System control
Oracle
ALTER SYSTEM ALTER DATABASE
SQL Server
EXEC sp_configure ALTER DATABASE EXEC sp_dboption SET
Session control
ALTER SESSION
Refer to 3 for more details on configuring SQL Server instances using sp_configure Refer to SQL Server Books Online for details on using SET to govern session settings in SQL Server (settings that persist only for the lifetime of a given connection) While the statements just described allow administrators, developers, and users to carry out powerful set-based data manipulation, they do not provide for other functionality more commonly associated with procedural programming languages: De ning stored procedures, triggers, scalar-valued user-de ned functions, and table-valued user-de ned functions Control- ow constructs such as loops and conditional branches (IF, THEN, ELSE) The ability to pass state between programmatic elements using variables, parameters, and subprocedures Exception handling Older SQL Server functionality based upon inspecting the value of a built-in function to determine whether an operation returned an error has been superseded by the ability to use TRY CATCH blocks more commonly found in languages such as Java and C# The ability to inspect and work with individual rows within a set of results using cursors SQL Server provides these capabilities (and many others) by implementing a set of statements in addition to the SQL statements previously described This superset of programming functionality is known as the Transact-SQL, or T-SQL, language To put this another way, instead of having two separate but interoperable languages (as with SQL and PL/SQL), SQL Server has a single server-side programming language Clients always communicate with SQL Server by sending T-SQL batches A T-SQL batch is similar to a PL/SQL anonymous block in that it can contain multiple statements,
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