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Contents
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Preface to Second Edition xi Preface to First Edition xiii
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1 Transmission Network Fundamentals
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11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Transmission Network Media Basic Terminology Transmission Network Topology Transmission Network Performance Network Synchronization Network Delays Security and Encryption References
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2 Basics of Microwave Communications
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21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Radio Fundamentals Structure and Characteristics of the Earth s Atmosphere Radio Propagation Digital Microwave Point-to-Point Systems Other Microwave Systems Basics of Digital Communications Systems References
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3 Microwave Link Design
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31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Design Process Flowchart The Loss/Attenuation Calculations Fading and Fade Margins Microwave Link Multipath Probability Models Quality and Availability Calculations Rain Attenuation and Outage Models Improving the Microwave System Repeaters References
89 90 99 114 120 127 136 150 158
Contents
4 Planning the Microwave Network
41 42 43 44 45 The Microwave Network Planning Process Microwave Systems in Wireless Networks Microwave Systems in Utility Telecom Networks Topology and Capacity Planning References
159 161 176 177 183
5 Microwave Network Design
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Introduction Spectrum Management Interference Effects and Frequency Sharing Microwave Design Tools Microwave Systems Engineering Tips, Hints, and Suggestions References
185 185 189 203 204 212 216
6 Microwave Network Deployment
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 610 611 612 613 Introduction Digital Microwave Radio Digital Multiplexers Cabling and Signal Termination Microwave Antennas, Radomes, and Transmission Lines GIS Data Field Surveys Housing the Equipment Microwave Antenna Mounting Structures Power Supply and Battery Backup Grounding, Lightning, and Surge Protection Microwave Testing and Troubleshooting References
217 218 256 258 261 288 298 317 320 333 340 342 355
7 Project Management
71 72 73 74 75 76 Tracking Microwave Rollout Regulatory Issues Logistical and Organizational Challenges Ethical Issues Frequently Asked Questions References
357 373 381 392 397 416
Appendix A American Cable Stranding Appendix B Quick RF Reference Sheet Appendix C Useful Physical Quantities and Units of Measurement Glossary Index
417 419 423 427 467
Preface to Second Edition
It has been six years since the rst edition of this book was prepared and published, during which time it was very well received among engineers, project managers, and everyone else interested in learning more about the terrestrial point-to-point microwave systems During that period of time there have been a number of new developments in the wireless and microwave systems arena that required our attention and, therefore, warranted a new edition of the book In addition, some information provided in the rst edition has been thoroughly updated and in some instances corrected and/or expanded Many new sections have been added, and practically all the existing chapters and sections of the book have been revised and refreshed with additional new and relevant information, including information on the impact of Ethernet and IP communications on microwave links A number of useful formulas have been added, as well as their application in solving microwave design-related problems explained in practical examples There is a new Frequently Asked Questions section in 7 ( Project Management ) that I recommend you consult as often as possible; there is a good chance that your question(s) have already been posted and answered there The writing of this second edition was helped by many individuals, who were kind enough to comment on the rst edition, including the identi cation of a few errors that inevitably had slipped in I am convinced that readers will nd the resulting 2010 edition of this book a very useful, practical reference in the eld of microwave systems engineering Harvey Lehpamer San Diego, California
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Preface to First Edition
Microwave radio network design is a subset of activities that constitute the overall transmission network design Transmission networks are sometimes called transport networks, access networks, or connectivity networks For many wireless carriers, microwave is becoming a popular preference over wireline (leased lines) transport for many reasons, especially as microwave radio equipment costs decrease and installation becomes simpler Low monthly operating costs can undercut those of typical single (and especially multiple) T1/E1 expenses, proving it to be more economical over the long term usually two to four years Network operators also like the fact that they can own and control microwave radio networks instead of relying on other service providers for network components Most people in the telecommunications eld, especially transmission engineers, project managers, and network planners in wireless systems, should have at least a basic understanding of the planning, design, and deployment process of the microwave network For clarity and technical correctness, we should be very clear and consistent in the terminology used throughout this book It is important to remember that not all microwave systems are point-to-point, and not all point-to-point systems are microwave Although many principles are common to other microwave systems, this book predominantly deals with the terrestrial microwave point-to-point systems in 2 to 60 GHz This book covers all stages of terrestrial microwave point-to-point network build-out from initial planning and feasibility studies to real system deployment Emphasis is given to practical guidelines and activities involved in putting microwave systems into operation It describes the process behind planning and creating a business case for a microwave network, including the advantages and disadvantages, and includes discussions that will help executives to make an informed decision about whether to build a microwave network What is a difference between planning, design, and deployment Although distinct differences exist in telecommunications projects,
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