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microwave fixed services ATPC offers immediate and long-term advantages to the link operator, including reduced average power consumption, extended equipment MTBF, and lower long-term RF interference levels Propagation statistics indicate that fade events on physically different propagation paths are noncorrelated; thus, the probability of simultaneous sensitivity to interference for two separate systems is small at least for situations in which multipath fading is the dominant limiting factor As long as link paths are properly designed with adequate path clearance and are not significantly affected by rain fade events, the ATPC maximum transmit power boost is required only for appropriately short periods of time (<2 sec) Transmit power in excess of coordinated power is maximum 10 dB and is allowed for not more than 001 percent of the time (3,250 sec/yr) There are two main advantages to using ATPC: the transmit power less than the maximum power may be used for the calculation of interference into other systems, and calculations of interference into the receiver of a system using ATPC may assume that the wanted signal transmitter is operating at maximum transmit power
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6236 Channel Width, Spectral Efficiency, and Modulation Schemes By far the most common form of modulation in digital communication is M-ary phase shift keying (PSK) With this method, a digital symbol is represented by one of M phase states of a sinusoidal carrier For binary phase shift keying (BPSK), there are two phase states, 0 and 180 , that represent a binary one or zero With quaternary phase shift keying (QPSK), there are four phase states representing the symbols 11, 10, 01, and 00 Each symbol contains two bits A QPSK modulator may be regarded as equivalent to two BPSK modulators out of phase by 90 Some other modulation schemes commonly used in data systems are FSK (including BFSK and QFSK) and QAM (of various levels) A suitable modulation method is selected by taking into account the system requirements For instance, if spectrum efficiency is not a major issue and/or high interference tolerance is important (congested and/or urban areas), a simple modulation method should be used Spectral efficiency refers to spectrum utilization as measured in bits/sec/Hz, and some countries and their regulatory organizations do not allow microwave radios to be installed if they do not have a very high spectral efficiency The features of simple modulation methods are as follows:
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Easy implementation in all frequency bands Robustness against propagation effects High tolerance against all kinds of interferences High system-gain characteristics
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On the other hand, a multistate modulation method improves spectral efficiency and capacity on a route Sophisticated modulation methods (high levels of QAM and TCM) are required for high-capacity links so that more information can be packed together Typical applications for these multistate modulation methods are high-capacity trunk, junction, and access networks The method of modulation and the capacity will directly affect the required bandwidth and the interference tolerance of a radio link The unit of information is the symbol, and the different schemes use different numbers of bits to define each symbol For a given symbol rate, the greater the number of bits per symbol, the higher the data rate For example, 8PSK has eight states in steps of 45 Shifting the carrier phase by 45 requires 1 Hz of the carrier frequency for 3 bits of the base band (23=8), and the spectral efficiency is 3 bps/Hz A 2-Mbps baseband modulated with 8PSK requires an RF carrier with a bandwidth of 067 MHz A 140-Mbps baseband therefore requires an RF carrier that has a bandwidth of 47 MHz On the other hand, 64QAM has 64 states, and phase and amplitude are shifted One shift requires 1 Hz of the carrier frequency for 6 bits of the baseband (26=64), and the spectral efficiency is 6 bps/Hz A 2-Mbps baseband modulated with 64QAM requires an RF carrier with a bandwidth of 033 MHz A 140-Mbps baseband requires an RF carrier that has a bandwidth of 23 MHz As shown in Table 61, the STM-1 radio link needs the radio channel 112 MHz with 4QAM, 56 MHz with 16QAM, and 28 MHz with 128QAM The S/N requirements for receiver threshold using different modulations are also shown in the table For example, 128QAM needs about 16 dB more S/N than 4QAM To upgrade the existing radio link from 4QAM 16 2 Mbps to 155 Mbps without changing the RF-channel width, 128QAM is needed A transmit power increase is normally not possible (Ptx max < 30 dBm) beyond more than a few decibels (0 to 3 dB) The required increase in power to attenuate noise and interference for 16QAM, 64QAM, and 256QAM compared to 4QAM is 7, 13,
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