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Figure 65 Gaseous absorption at 60 GHz
Six
The resonances for frequencies below 100 GHz occur at 24 GHz for water vapor and 60 GHz for oxygen This absorption occurs to a much higher degree at 60 GHz than at lower frequencies typically used for wireless communications, and it weakens (attenuates) 60-GHz signals over distance, so that signals cannot travel far beyond the intended receiver This reduction in signal strength enables higher frequency reuse that is, the ability for more 60-GHz links to operate in the same geographic area than links with longer ranges
62125 Engineering and Installation Precautions
The oxygen absorption affects the range, with the resulting benefits just described; however, link distances of millimeter-wave radios operating in the real world are limited primarily by rain Link distance increases as level of availability and rainfall rates decrease Rainfall statistics are well known for locations around the globe so that range and availability can be accurately predicted In moderate rain regions, the rain attenuation is about twice the oxygen attenuation, and in heavy rain regions, the rain attenuation is more than three times the oxygen attenuation Therefore, in designing a 60-GHz link to provide robust communication capability in the real world, rain attenuation is actually a larger factor than oxygen absorption, although both have to be taken into consideration Many high-frequency (10 to 30 GHz) and millimeter-wave (above 30 GHz) links fail to perform properly because rain rates are not properly applied or are not assessed appropriately for a microclimate area Say, for example, in Town A, just 10 miles north of Town B, we have an average of 48 inches of rain per year compared with Town B s 23 inches of rain per year (the average rainfall is the mean monthly precipitation, including rain, snow, hail, etc) The planning for a Town A link may not be the same as that for a Town B link, even though they are in the same rain region We have to keep in mind that the total amount of rain is not as important as the intensity of the rainfall (rain rate, mm/hr), which also has to be carefully assessed Many cities have their microclimate areas where temperature and rain rate differ quite significantly from one area to another Although important in the design of all microwave links in 10 38 GHz bands, exact rain rate data becomes absolutely critical when designing links in even higher millimeter-wave bands (see Figure 66) The ITU-R recommendation that can be used for estimating long-term statistics of rain attenuation is considered to be valid in all parts of the world at least for frequencies of up to 40 GHz and path lengths up to 60 km (37 mi) Most likely certain modifications of the existing models
Microwave Network Deployment
100 50 20 10 150 mm/hr 100 mm/hr 50 mm/hr 25 mm/hr 18 dB/km @ 70 GHz
Specific attenuation Tx (dB/km)
45 dB/km @ 18 GHz 5 mm/hr
5 2 1
125 mm/hr
025 mm/hr 05
02 01 005 002 001 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000
Frequency (GHz)
Figure 66 Rain attenuation curves
may be required to extend their validity to MMW links Some preliminary long-term measurements on a half-mile link performed in the early 2000s show a significant deviation from the ITU-R recommendations; measured attenuation was typically 1 5 dB higher that the calculated one based on ITU recommendation It also seems that the lower rain rates caused a larger difference in results than the higher rain rates for the particular percentage of time Table 64 shows approximate results of millimeter-wave link engineering for the typical license-exempt 60-GHz and licensed 70-GHz link using the Crane rain model The E-band is unaffected by fog, smog, sand, and other small particles in the air From the installation perspective, if we assume a 2-ft dish at the new, license-exempt millimeter frequency (MMW), 60 GHz for example, the maximum deflection of the antenna and the structure should be 05 For the licensed 70- and 80-GHz bands, this value should be even smaller This means that these radios should be only mounted on a very sturdy
Six Millimeter-Wave Link Engineering Maximum Hop Length (Miles) for Rain Regions in the US (Crane 1996)
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