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On over-water paths at frequencies above about 3 GHz, it is advantageous to choose vertical polarization over horizontal polarization At grazing angles greater than about 07 , a reduction in the surface reflection of 2 to 17 dB can be expected over that at horizontal polarization in space of electromagnetic energy generated (or received) by a given antenna For mobile, portable, and some base station applications, the type of antenna needed has an omnidirectional radiation pattern The omnidirectional antenna radiates and receives equally well in all horizontal directions, while directional antennas focus energy in a particular direction For microwave point-to-point links, required antennas are always highly directive The radiation patterns are presented as polar plots (relative energy level versus angular position) in the E-plane, and H-plane in other words, in the same plane as the E-field and H-field, respectively A simplified version, called a radiation pattern envelope (RPE), is often used for design purposes In this case, the pattern is deliberately linearized, and the normal (sometimes wide) fluctuations in the field are removed Radiation patterns (or the RPE version) are used to design and evaluate system performance as it relates to transmission (EIRP) in any given direction, or reception (RSL) from any given direction, including interference Four RPEs are always needed when analyzing the behavior of microwave antennas: two parallel envelopes (named HH and VV) and two crossed envelopes (named HV and VH) These acronyms mean
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6514 Radiation Patterns Radiation patterns describe the distribution
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HH The response of a horizontally polarized antenna port (H-port) to a horizontally polarized microwave radio signal VV The response of a vertically polarized antenna port (V-port) to a vertically polarized microwave radio signal HV The response of a horizontally polarized antenna port to a vertically polarized microwave radio signal VH The response of a vertically polarized antenna port to a horizontally polarized microwave radio signal
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Minimizing RF interference is one of the toughest challenges for wireless communications network designers One of the main causes of interference between point-to-point microwave links is the existence of side lobes (a radiation in any direction other than the direction(s) of intended radiation) and back lobes (the radiation lobe opposite to the main lobe), spurious reflections that radiate (and receive) in directions other than the main beam (see Figure 67)
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3 dB Half-power beamwidth
3 dB
Figure 67 Antenna radiation pattern
Side lobes up to 30 away from the main beam tend to have sufficient energy to interact and interfere with physically adjacent links, causing reduction in signal quality and increases in bit error rate In an antenna radiation pattern, a null is a zone in which the effective radiated power is at a minimum A null often has a narrow directivity angle compared to that of the main beam Thus, the null is useful for several purposes, such as suppression of interfering signals in a given direction By minimizing side lobes and back lobes, a greater number of point-topoint links may be deployed within a given area without being affected by interference Consequently, for antennas exhibiting superior side lobe suppression, neighboring links may be located closer together without sacrificing network performance so the greater number of antennas can be practically installed on a single tower In recent years, significant advancements in the antenna-design areas of polarization discrimination and side lobe reduction have provided the capability of enhanced spectrum efficiency in point-to-point microwave radio communications
6515 Beam Efficiency Beam efficiency is a parameter frequently used
to describe the performance of an antenna Beam efficiency is the ratio of the power received or transmitted within a cone angle to the power received or transmitted by the whole antenna In other words, beam efficiency is a measure of the amount of power received or transmitted by minor lobes relative to the main beam The antenna beam efficiency is absorbed in the definition of gain
6516 Front-to-Back Ratio Apart from the forward gain of an antenna, another important parameter is the front-to-back ratio This specification is expressed in decibels, and as the name implies, it is the ratio of the maximum signal in the forward direction to the signal in the opposite direction 6517 Bandwidth The bandwidth of an antenna expresses its ability to operate over a wide frequency range It is often defined as the range
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