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The last activity during the microwave radio-hop installation is to align the antennas The main purpose of path alignment is to physically align the antenna s azimuth and elevation for maximum signal
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transfer (minimum path loss) Optimal antenna alignment occurs when both transmitting and receiving antennas are precisely aimed at each other in both azimuth and elevation It is also important to ensure that the two antennas for the link are not cross-polarized Azimuth is the angle in the horizontal plane with respect to true north, and elevation is the angle (positive or negative) in the vertical plane with respect to the horizontal plane Notice that the values of the elevation angles on opposite sides of the link are not identical The difference is a result of the well-known fact that the Earth is not flat Antenna altitude and antenna height are expressed in meters or feet These distances are measured to the center (feeder) of the parabolic dish antenna A coarse alignment can be done by using line of sight, a compass, or some other method that comes with the radio (audible signal, for example) The antenna is finely aligned by adjusting for maximum input power using the outdoor unit s AGC voltage At one end of the link at a time, the antenna pointing direction is carefully adjusted to maximize (or peak) the reading on the indicator tool Once the maximum signal is achieved, the antennas are aligned for elevation optimization After performing this procedure on both ends, it is very important to obtain the actual received signal level in dBm so as to verify that it is within 0 to 3 dB of the value obtained from the link budget calculation If the measured and calculated values differ by more than about 8 dB, it is possible that either the antenna alignment is still not correct or that there is another problem in the antenna/transmission line system or both It is possible to get a peak reading during the antenna alignment process if one or both of the antennas are aligned on a side lobe, in which case the measured receive level may be 20 dB (or more!) lower than the calculated value indicates that it should be (Figure 69)
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Figure 69 Error in antenna alignment
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Six
Traditionally, the radios that will be placed at each site are used to complete the task of optimizing the path However, there are several reasons for not utilizing the radios to complete the process The radios may not be available at the time the test has been scheduled, or their reliability may be questionable, thus requiring alternative methods Another possible situation when the radios might not be usable is when the FCC permits have not been granted (in certain frequency bands and/or geographical areas, we are allowed to install radios with FCC permits pending, while in some others we are not allowed until the license has been granted), but the contractor needs to complete the path test on time to meet the customer s requirements or to stay ahead of expected turbulent weather In addition, if the anticipated path is questionable, a quick, cost-effective, reliable method is needed to test the link prior to the significant investment in constructing towers, purchasing radios, and obtaining other expensive equipment and hardware Alternative test instrumentation must be utilized, in lieu of the radios, whenever the previously mentioned circumstances arise Scheduling of the path alignment test and installation of the associated hardware (eg, cables, waveguide, antenna) can be facilitated to reduce excess mobilization costs Some of the most widely used apparatus for this application are signal generators (used as the transmitter) and spectrum analyzers (used as the receiver) The signal generator should be a broadband, synthesized device (phase locked to a reference clock) with accurate output power, equal to or greater than 0 dBm The spectrum analyzer should be tunable and have at least 100 dBm of sensitivity at the frequency band of interest One of the most unpredictable and unacceptable unavailability events in the microwave system is power fading due to the ducting, antenna decoupling, and obstruction in coastal and similar humid climates One of the simplest solutions is to uptilt larger dishes on longer paths (at above 6 GHz) in ducting areas, perhaps 1 dB, to minimize power fading and multipath activity due to the nighttime antenna decoupling In space-diversity microwave systems, the diversity antenna delay equalization (DADE) has to be set in receivers to ensure errorless or hitless data switching in a severe fading environment This requirement is a result of different waveguide lengths from the microwave radio to the main and diversity antennas On most MW radios today, the DADE is automatically adjusted based on the phase difference between main and space diversity received signals Any system components mounted outdoors will be subject to the effects of wind, and it is important to know the direction and velocity of wind that is common to the site Antennas and their supporting structures must be able to prevent these forces from affecting the antenna or causing damage to the building or tower on which the components are mounted
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