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Basics of Microwave Communications
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It is possible to set the Fresnel zone to even-numbered values when plotting a profile to see if any potential areas of destructive signal reflection are present on the path
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244 Near and Far Fields
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Let us assume for a moment that electromagnetic waves propagate under ideal conditions, ie, without dispersion If high-frequency energy is emitted by an isotropic radiator, then the energy propagates uniformly in all directions Areas with the same power density therefore form spheres (A = 4p r ) around the radiator (see Figure 29) The same amount of energy spreads out on an incremented spherical surface at an incremented spherical radius That means that the power density on the surface of a sphere is inversely proportional to the radius of the sphere Since a spherical segment emits equal radiation in all direction (at constant transmit power), if the power radiated is redistributed to provide more radiation in one direction, it results in an increase of the power density in the direction of the radiation This effect is called antenna gain, and it is obtained by directional radiation of the power So, the formula to calculate the directional power flux density, S, is PT GT [W/m 2 ] 4 r 2
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(212)
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where PT = transmitted power (W) GT = gain of the transmitting antenna r = radius of the sphere (meters)
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Figure 29 Power ux density
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When the range is large, the spherical surface of uniform power density appears flat to a receiving antenna, which is very small compared to the surface of the sphere This is why the far field wave front is considered planar and the rays approximately parallel Also, it is apparent that at some shorter range, the spherical surface no longer appears flat, even to a very small receiving antenna The distance where the planer, parallel ray approximation breaks down is known as the near field The crossover distance between a near and far field is taken to be where the phase error is 1/16 of a wavelength The result is a well-known formula for the beginning of the far field of an antenna with the largest dimension D in feet and wavelength l in feet: RFF = 2D2 [ft] (213)
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If D represents the largest linear dimension of the antenna (the diameter of the parabolic dish antenna), d represents the transmitterreceiver (T-R) separation distance, and l represents the wavelength in free-space, then the following relationships define the far-field region: d >> D d >> d >> 2D
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The terms far field and near field describe the fields around an antenna or, more generally, any electromagnetic radiation source The names imply that two regions, with a boundary between them, exist around an antenna while, in fact, as many as three regions and two boundaries exist These boundaries are not fixed in space, and they move closer to or farther from an antenna, depending on both the radiation frequency and the amount of phase error an application can tolerate In the literature, these regions have different names and can be defined in slightly different ways Usually, two- and three-region models are used The near field may be thought of as the transition point where the laws of optics must be replaced by Maxwell s equations of electromagnetism In the three-region model, near field, far field, and the transition zone are defined as follows The near field, also called the reactive near field, is the region that is closest to the antenna and for which the reactive field dominates over the radiating fields In the reactive near-field region, fields vary as 1/r3
Basics of Microwave Communications
(power varies as 1/r6) For antennas that are large in terms of wavelength, the near-field region consists of the reactive field extending to the certain distance followed by a radiating near field (see Figure 210) The transition zone or radiating near field is the region between the reactive near field and the far-field regions and is the region in which the radiation fields dominate and where the angular field distribution depends on distance from the antenna In the radiating near-field region, fields vary with 1/r2 The boundary of transition zone is determined by the following equation: D3 [ft] (215)
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