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In the radiating near field, the field strength does not necessarily decrease steadily with distance away from the antenna but may exhibit an oscillatory character Therefore, it is difficult to predict the antenna gain in that region The far field, or Rayleigh distance, is the region where the radiation pattern is independent of distance In this area, fields vary with 1/r Although formulae for the near-field and transition-zone boundary vary in the literature, they all agree on the far-field boundary Table 24 shows some common examples of the distance to the far-field boundary Equations contain terms in 1/r, 1/r2, and 1/r3 In the near field, the 1/r3 terms dominate the equations As the distance increases, the 1/r3 and 1/r2 terms attenuate rapidly and, as a result, the 1/r term dominates in the far field It is also important to notice that far-field expressions are valid if D >> l, which is always the case in microwave systems Engineers perform link engineering, including Fresnel clearances and path profiles, based on the assumption that microwave antennas
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Figure 210 Radiating elds of an antenna
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Two Far-Field Boundary Distances Antenna Diameter (ft) 2 6 8 10 12 15 6 8 10 12 6 8 25 3 4 1 2 1 2 Distance to Far Field (ft) 47 439 780 1,219 1,756 2,743 512 910 1,422 2,048 585 1,040 140 201 358 37 146 47 187
Frequency (GHz) 58 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 11 11 11 18 18 23 23
are in the far-field region For example, a microwave system operating in an 8 GHz band and having 6-ft dishes will have a far field beginning at 178 m (585 ft) from the antenna using the general formula for the far-field boundary
245 Link Budget
A microwave engineer starts the microwave link design by doing a link budget analysis The link budget is a calculation involving the gain and loss factors associated with the antennas, transmitters, receivers, transmission lines, and propagation environment, used to determine the maximum distance at which a transmitter and receiver can successfully operate The purposes of the transmitter are to generate the carrier frequency that is to be used for the communication, to modulate this carrier frequency with the desired information, and finally, to amplify the signal so that it attains a sufficiently high power level so that it may travel the desired communication distance to the receiver The receiver amplifies the received signal (which is at this point much weaker than when it was transmitted), filters out any undesirable signals (interfering signals) that the receiver picked up and, finally, detects the existence of information in the carrier frequency
Basics of Microwave Communications
The purpose of transmission lines is to interconnect the antenna with the transmitter/receiver Transmission lines between the radio equipment and the antenna may consist of coaxial cabling or a (flexible) waveguide The antenna-coupling unit makes it possible to utilize a common antenna for both the transmitter and receiver The transmitter and receiver can, for example, be connected to the same antenna either via a duplex filter or a transmitter/receiver switch Together, feeder cable losses, antenna-coupling losses, and any additional losses (depending on the radio configuration) constitute branching losses The antenna adapts the generated signal to the surrounding environment (to the propagation medium) and directs the radio waves that are to be transmitted towards the receiving station When receiving, the antenna receives the signal from the desired direction and sends it to the receiver Every antenna is typically characterized by its impedance, bandwidth, directivity (radiation pattern), and polarization Antennas may be more or less an isotropic antenna (it radiates equally in all directions) or an antenna that exhibits extremely high directivity, such as parabolic dish antennas used in microwave point-to-point links The receiver sensitivity threshold is the signal level at which the radio runs continuous errors at a specified bit rate Specifications are listed for the 10 3 bit error rate (PDH radios) or 10-6 bit error rate System gain (in decibels) is defined as the difference between the transmitter output power and the receiver threshold Lowering the system gain will reduce the fade margin System gain can be used to reduce antenna sizes or improve the path availability A given radio system has a system gain that depends on the design of the radio and the modulation used For example, 99999 percent system availability (five minutes of outage per year) will degrade to 99980 percent (two hours of outage per year) if the modulation is changed from 16 QAM to 128 QAM without recovering the system gain reduction and all other conditions remaining unchanged The gains from the antenna at each end are added to this gain, with larger antennas providing higher gain The free-space loss of the radio signal as it travels over the air is then subtracted from the system, and the longer the link, the higher the loss These calculations result in a fade margin for the link (see Figure 211); fade margin is the difference between the received signal and receiver threshold value (or sensitivity) for given BER, typically 10-6 or 10-3 In most applications, the same duplex radio setup is applied to both stations forming the microwave link Thus, the calculation of the received signal level is independent of direction See 622 for more details The radio can handle anything that affects the radio signal within the fade margin If the margin is exceeded, then the link could go down and
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