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Figure 34 Obstacle losses and knife-edge approximation
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The recommended models for diffraction loss are given by the ITU-R Recommendation P526 The latest version of this document should be used as it is regularly updated and improved
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Reflection on the Earth s surface may give rise to multipath propagation Depending on the path geometry, the direct ray at the receiver may be interfered with by the ground-reflected ray, and the reflection loss can be significant Since the refraction properties of the atmosphere are constantly changing (k-value changes), the reflection loss varies (fades) The loss due to reflection on the ground is dependent on the total reflection coefficient of the ground and the phase shift Figure 35 illustrates the signal strength as a function of the total reflection coefficient The highest value (AMax) of signal strength is obtained for a phase angle of 0 , and the lowest value (AMin) is for a phase angle of 180 The reflection coefficient is dependent on the frequency, grazing angle (angle between the ray beam and the horizontal plane), polarization, and other ground properties The grazing angle of radio-relay paths is very small usually less than 1 It is strongly recommended to avoid ground reflection, which can be achieved by shielding the path against the indirect ray For large grazing angles, the difference between vertical and horizontal polarization is substantial Changing the antenna heights can move the location of the reflection point This approach, usually known as the hi-lo technique, forces the reflection point to move closer to the lowest antenna by affecting the height of the higher antenna The grazing angle increases, and the path becomes less sensitive to k-value variations
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Signal strength [dB]
+10 0 10 20 30 40 02 04 06
Amax Amin
Total reflection coefficient
Figure 35 Signal strength versus re ection coef cient
Microwave Link Design
Space diversity also provides good protection against reflection, and it is usually applied for paths over open water surfaces Obviously, on many paths, particularly at higher frequencies, it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of the effective surface reflection coefficient because of various uncertainties such as the surface conductivity, surface roughness, and so on, and the degree of subjectivity currently needed to obtain a calculation The calculation procedure may only be a rough guide in such situations to help identify problem paths or to help choose one path from another, even if this possibility exists in the first place The contribution resulting from reflection loss is not automatically included in the link budget However, when reflection cannot be avoided, the fade margin may be adjusted by including this contribution as additional loss in the link budget 33 Fading and Fade Margins
Fading is defined as the variation of the strength of a received radio carrier signal due to atmospheric changes and/or ground and water reflections in the propagation path Fading types normally considered when planning microwave point-to-point paths are as follows:
Multipath fading, which is divided into
Flat fading Frequency-selective fading
Rain fading Refraction-diffraction fading (k-type fading)
All fading types are strongly dependent on the path length and are estimated as the probability of exceeding a given (calculated) fade margin A special type of fading is a fading due to the interference and it will be described in more details as well
331 Multipath Fading
Under normal propagation conditions, the receive level is subject to only slight fluctuations of a few decibels peak-to-peak, which can be described by the lognormal distribution These fluctuations practically have no harmful effect on the system performance as long as the fade margin has been chosen sufficiently high It is well known that the transmission channel between the antennas of the transmitter and the receiver of a microwave system may diverge
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from its normal propagation conditions for short periods of time and experience detrimental propagation effects Various clear-air fading mechanisms caused by extremely refractive layers in the atmosphere must be taken into account in the planning of links of more than a few miles in length: beam spreading (commonly referred to as defocusing), antenna decoupling, surface multipath, and atmospheric multipath Most of these mechanisms can occur by themselves or in combination with each other Multipath fading is the dominant fading mechanism for frequencies lower than approximately 10 GHz A reflected wave causes a phenomenon known as multipath, meaning that the radio signal can travel multiple paths to reach the receiver Typically, multipath occurs when a reflected wave reaches the receiver at the same time as the direct wave that travels in a straight line from the transmitter Multipath propagation gives rise to two kinds of signal degrading effects, ie, flat fading and frequency selective fading The flat fading effect is due to thermal noise and interference Certainly, both flat and selective fading typically occur in combination Two scenarios of multipath are possible:
If the two signals reach the receiver in phase, then the signal is ampli ed This is known as an upfade Upfades can also occur when the radio wave is trapped within an atmospheric duct As can be seen from the following formula, higher upfades are possible for longer paths: Upfademax = 10 log d 003d (dB) (38)
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