free barcode reader sdk c# Path length d is in kilometers and, for the 50 km path, maximum upfade can be up to 166 dB in Software

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Path length d is in kilometers and, for the 50 km path, maximum upfade can be up to 166 dB
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If the two waves reach the receiver out of phase, they weaken the overall received signal If the two waves are 180 apart when they reach the receiver, they can completely cancel each other out so that a radio does not receive a signal at all A location where a signal is canceled out by multipath is called a null or downfade
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Under fading conditions, the direct signal may be attenuated and/ or distortion increased to the point where frequency selective notches result and dispersive fading occurs Such distortion results in ISI (intersymbol interference) in the demodulator, an increase in data signal BER, and a possible loss of data signal recovery Smooth surfaces, such as a body of water, a flat stretch of earth, or a metal roof, reflect radio signals In Figure 36, the body of water
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Microwave Link Design Superrefractive layer Refracted wave (multipath) Transmitter Direct wave Receiver
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Reflected wave (multipath)
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Figure 36 Multipath fading
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reflects a wave that cancels out the direct signal and could bring down the radio link Multipath fading was also observed on Earth-to-space links for elevation angles below about 5 ; however, the phenomenon is more commonly encountered on terrestrial links2 All ray components on an Earth-space link usually traverse similar vertical refractive conditions While there may be some signal-level fading or enhancement due to beam spreading or convergence, the similar impact on all components tends to make the multipath phenomenon less prevalent than on terrestrial links where rays traveling along different heights may encounter distinctly different refractive conditions along their entire lengths Some important facts about multipath fading are as follows:
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Multipath fading is normally more active over bodies of water (lakes, sea, and so forth) than over land It is common practice on over-water paths to use a low-high antenna pair to move any multipath re ections out of the antenna main beam It is important to avoid ground re ection Multipath fading is more likely on paths across at ground than on paths over rough terrain Horizontal paths give most at fading
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Multipath fading is normally most active during early and later summer (late spring and early autumn) Calm weather favors atmospheric strati cation, and that gives multipath fading The fading season is de ned as the so-called worst fading month, usually a summer month, or a fade season, usually 2 4 months per year In radio links of typical length and in temperate climates, multipath activity lasts approximately three months, so the yearly fading season length is one-fourth of that measured in the worst month When operating in tropical climates with very long hop lengths, multipath activity may last up to six months with intensity comparable to that of the worst month A rule of thumb is that multipath fading, for radio links having bandwidths less than 40 MHz and path lengths less than approximately 30 km (20 mi), is described as being at instead of frequency selective Increasing path inclination reduces the effects of at fading Reducing path clearance (ie, lowering antennas) will reduce the effect of at fading, because the risk of multipath propagation is decreased; however, this technique may increase the risk for refraction-diffraction fading On over-water paths, for example, the path inclination might be adjusted to place the surface re ection on a land surface rather than on water, and even better, on a land surface covered by trees or other vegetation The re ection point moves towards an antenna that is being lowered and away from an antenna that is being raised On over-water paths at frequencies above about 3 GHz, it is advantageous to choose vertical polarization over horizontal polarization At grazing angles greater than about 07 , a reduction in the surface re ection of 2 to 17 dB can be expected over that at horizontal polarization Antenna beam tilting effects have been effectively employed to overcome multipath fading induced by surface multipath or superrefractive/ ducting layers in microwave point-to-point (LOS) links In both cases, upward tilting of the antenna cuts-off or reduces the radio frequency energy refracted and reduces the multipath fading As a side note, these approaches and experiments helped to design angle diversity schemes in LOS links
Generally speaking, links should be sited to take advantage of rough terrain in ways that will increase the path inclination (sometimes referred to as the high-low technique) This approach should be
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