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Figure 37 Microwave radio signature curve
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relative time delay Since the amplitude of the reflected signal can be lower or higher than the direct signal, a minimum or nonminimum phase group can be obtained When the amplitude of the direct signal is higher than that of the indirect signal, the notch is called a minimumphase notch Conversely, when the delayed signal has higher amplitude than the direct signal, the notch is a nonminimum phase notch Because a receiver can respond differently to these types of notches, it is important to test the radio under both minimum and nonminimum phase conditions In general, nonminimum is more severe than minimum phase dispersive fading, but under most conditions, the direct signal typically is usually stronger (minimum phase notch) The M-curve or outage signature is a plot of the minimum phase notch depth versus the notch frequency at which the BER of the link starts to exceed a certain threshold When the notch depth at a given frequency is greater than the value on the curve, the BER is unacceptable The W-curve is a plot of nonminimum phase notch versus notch depth In either case, the curve can be used to calculate a dispersive fade margin that is equal to the area enclosed by the curve and the horizontal frequency axis The M-curve is the most common test of equalizer performance and is useful for a number of reasons:
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It can be used to compare different models of radios; the smaller the M-curve, the better the radio can handle multipath It can be used for troubleshooting problems on the microwave link
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The dispersive fade margin (DFM), a value expressed in decibels, is the measure of a receiver s ability to resist dispersive fading Digital microwave radio manufacturers measure and provide the dispersive fade margin from the typical (measured) fading signatures for their digital radio receivers To measure the DFM of a digital radio receiver, manufacturers simulate multipath fading conditions either in the field or at the factory W D Rummler of Bell Laboratories has developed a simplified threepath model of multipath propagation and has shown that 63 ns is approximately the delay time measured on real microwave links in the US The dispersive fading lab simulation will work at either the carrier (RF) frequency or the intermediate frequency (IF) Most manufacturers of multipath simulation systems incorporate IF in their designs because of relative ease of design and better accuracy at lower frequencies
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The dispersive fade margin is defined as the average depth of multipath fade that causes an outage, independent of thermal and interference fade margins, and can be approximated using the following formula: 2( f ) e B / 38 DFM 176 10 log 1584 where f = signature width of the equipment B = notch depth of the equipment It is important to remember the following facts about selective fading:
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If f and B are not available, the user can de ne DFM explicitly as well In Europe, signature width is usually given for the microwave radio; in North America, it is commonly provided in the form of dispersive fade margin (the usual values are 45 65 dB) Increasing the output power so as to reduce the outage time for selective fading does not give any improvement It only increases the at fading or reduces the thermal noise power received without having any in uence on the effects (amplitude and group delay distortions across the channel) of selective fading
In addition, it is very important to notice that modern digital microwave radios are very robust and practically immune to dispersive (spectrum-distorting) fade activity Only a major error in path engineering (wrong antenna size or misalignment) over the high-clearance path can cause dispersive fading problems
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