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the strategy and readiness to cope with the even faster growing data traffic of the future This type of transmission solution is needed in all parts of the wireless network, both in access networks with many points and low-capacity links and in core networks with high traffic volumes This means for example that, in a wireless network, a transmission solution is needed that provides for efficient transport of many voice channels and that can evolve to also carry packet-based traffic, whether asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), Internet Protocol (IP), or both The radio network will be connected to the core network by a backbone network (access and core transmission network), allowing wideband access and interconnection of subscribers
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4232 Deterministic and Statistical Multiplexing In 2G wireless networks, deterministic multiplexing is applied, whereby each connection is characterized by a constant bandwidth (eg, one time slot) The minimum needed bandwidth over the physical link is then simply the sum of the constant bandwidths of the connections Since the traffic characterization is not probabilistic, statistical gain is not available The 3G wireless networks use packet-switched (ATM) systems and statistical multiplexing When several connections from variablebit-rate sources are multiplexed together, a statistical multiplexing gain is obtained because there is a certain probability that traffic bursts on different connections will not appear at the same time It is possible to maintain the same blocking probability with less bandwidth if statistical multiplexing is used instead of deterministic multiplexing The price for it is that the quality of service (eg, packet delay and loss) will not be ensured in a deterministic but in a probabilistic fashion Statistical multiplexing of data traffic can occur side by side with the transmission of the delay and loss-sensitive traffic such as voice and video3 Like voice telephony, ATM is fundamentally a connectionoriented telecommunication system That means that a connection must be established between two points before data can be transferred between them An ATM connection specifies the transmission path, allowing ATM cells to self-route through an ATM network Being connection-oriented also allows ATM to specify a guaranteed quality of service (QoS) for each connection
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4233 The Effect of ATM on Microwave Link Planning
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In the process of dimensioning microwave point-to-point systems for ATM traffic, there are a number of issues to be considered Since bit errors in the microwave system typically appear in multiples and spread less than the ATM header length, the single-bit header correction feature may not improve cell loss rate as much as predicted and intended The latest
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research shows that the bit error rate is degraded approximately one decade from the microwave radio system to the ATM CBR virtual circuit due to the cell loss A general assumption based on this could be to assume that any BER requirement should be one order of magnitude higher for ATM traffic In today s broadband networks (wireless or wireline), the traffic requirements will increase the total transmission capacity needs enormously Many of today s 1E1/T1 links will be increased to STM-1/OC-3 and higher capacities and will require high-capacity SDH/ SONET microwave radios Aside from the capacity, these microwave radios need a very sophisticated error-correction technique to satisfy ATM transport layer requirements Normally, in a fiber-optic system, BER should be 10 9 measured at the ATM CBR virtual circuit, and the same quality corresponds to BER = 10 10 in the microwave radio system Existing radio links were planned using parameters for PDH or SDH systems such as severely errored seconds (SES), errored seconds (ES), residual bit error rate (RBER), and background block error ratios (BBER), for which some time percentages of worst-month statistics have been allocated When planning is based on 64 kbps ISDN paths (ITU-T G821), several different grades of quality can be applied, such as high grade, medium grade (four subclasses), or local grade This applies mainly to existing PDH radio links For mobile systems, one of the medium grade classes typically is applied (Class 3) When planning is based on primary level or above paths (ITU-T G826), international portion and national portion are specified National portion has been subdivided into long-haul, short-haul, and access sections This applies mainly to existing SDH radio links, while new international synchronous paths should be planned according to ITU-T G828, which also applies to national and private synchronous paths New ITU-T G828 specifies recommended block-based error performance parameters for synchronous digital paths that may support circuit switched, packet switched, and leased circuit services Synchronous digital paths meeting the objectives of G828 will enable ATM traffic to meet B-ISDN-requirements of I356 Residual BER should be below 10 11, which also can be measured by a suitable BER test-set In practice, four-level modulation or FEC easily fulfils this RBER requirement If old PDH radio links will be utilized (planned according to requirements of G821) for packetized traffic, recalculations must be done and a fade margin corresponding to threshold level at about BER = 10 5 (2 10 5, to be more precise) is needed for the calculations Multipath outage probability and the rain outage probability during worst-month must be calculated according to ITU-R Recommendation
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