qr code with vb.net Planning the Microwave Network in Software

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Planning the Microwave Network
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Most operators these days require an aggressive payback time of 24 months to justify investment in a new network technology Let us assume that the 4T1 microwave system cost, fully engineered, installed, and tested, is $50,000 per hop (an example is shown in Table 41) Not only is the total cost after four years still the same, it will also provide system expansion for an additional three T1s, thus resulting in the cost per T1 actually being only $7,500 On the other hand, leased T1 has recurring costs of $400 per month (typical in the US), and after four years the cost for the leased T1 would grow to $20,200 almost three times that of microwave T1 circuits In many countries where leased lines are not readily available or cost a lot more, it would be even easier to prove the advantage of building a microwave network If not one but multiple T1/E1 circuits are required to connect two points, the superiority of the microwave system and its quick break-even point (payback time) are usually very easy to demonstrate Equipment supplier financing is an attractive means of acquiring microwave systems, particularly for infrastructure build-out requirements In general, equipment supplier leasing is the financing method preferred by operators For each of the technologies, it is assumed that there will be ongoing maintenance and operational costs The maintenance costs are usually assumed to be around 5 percent of the equipment cost on an annual basis, and the operational costs are assumed to be 2 percent, but it is recommended to use some real data (if available) from a similar type of network, in the same country, and using the same type of equipment The increasing dominance of IP and Ethernet is enabling a convergence of networks and allowing for a wide range of services, business and residential customers and mobile backhaul, to be carried over the same infrastructure Requirements for huge cell-site capacity, in excess of 20 30 Mbps, in 4G wireless networks, will make quick leasing of T1/E1 backhaul circuits thing of the past
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TABLE 41
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Comparison of Leased Lines versus Microwave Systems 4T1 Microwave System $30,000 (turnkey) $ 0 $30,000 $ 7,500 $30,000 $ 7,500 Leased 1T1 $1,000 $400 $5,800 $5,800 $20,200 $20,200
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Expenses Up-front charges Monthly charges After 12 months After 12 months per T1 After 48 months After 48 months per T1
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43 Microwave Systems in Utility Telecom Networks
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431 SCADA
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Microwave radio systems have been used in many utility companies since the early 1950s Historically, the role of terrestrial microwave (and satellite) communications in the energy industry has been in reaching remote areas; offshore platform communications; pipeline supervisory, control, and data acquisition (SCADA) systems; etc Electric power and other utility telecommunications networks have some specific requirements that are different from those of other telecom networks, such as (among others) SCADA, powerline fault location, loop and ring protective schemes, and direct transfer trip protective relaying SCADA systems are used extensively by power, water, gas, and other utility companies to monitor and manage distribution facilities Direct transfer trip transfers local protective relay tripping signals hundreds of miles to operate a distant circuit breaker The allocated time to clear a high-voltage fault is typically three cycles, meaning about 50 ms at 60 Hz, and the large part of the sensing and operation times are specific to devices such as protective relays and circuit breakers whose characteristics cannot be changed The only variable that can be controlled is the communication channel transit time, which includes free-space delays, channel banks, microwave terminals and repeaters, waveguides, and so on Typical transit (channel delay) time objective for the communication channel is 10 to 15 ms end to end It is important to notice that transmission and therefore microwave systems for wireless networks, telephone operators, and government or utility companies will have very different sets of requirements to be considered
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