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443 Simple Star Topology
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Figure 44 illustrates a common pattern in which all cell-sites are directly connected to the switch to form a star network The advantage of this configuration is that the cell-sites may be established to expand capacity requirements in a particular area separately from capacity requirements in other parts of the network, and the network may be
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Figure 43 Chain/tandem network con guration
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Planning the Microwave Network
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Figure 44 Simple star topology
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gradually taken into service in accordance with the establishment of new sites This configuration also has the following disadvantages:
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It involves a large number of antennas in one place This may cause space and strength problems for antenna support structures Large and robust structures are generally more expensive The high number of incoming routes may lead to problems in nding a suf cient number of available channels
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This configuration is used mainly in leased lines networks and only under special circumstances in microwave networks
444 Topology Utilizing Hubs
Figure 45 illustrates another option of the star configuration In this specific case, the connection is made in two stages The farthest sites are connected first to a common node (hub), which is connected to the switch The link from the common node (hub) to the switch will generally have higher capacity than the individual cell-site connections To handle longer distance, it may be necessary to assign a lowerfrequency band to the link between the hub and the switch Higherfrequency bands are therefore reserved for the connection of the individual cell-sites The main drawback to the star configurations is generally the vulnerability for hardware failure in the common node: the hub This type of configuration is suitable for the wireless networks utilizing statistical multiplexing For example, if the hub site requires 5 T1s for connection to the switch in a 2G network with deterministic
Four
2T1 2T1
1T1 2T1 2T1
6T1 BSC
1T1 3T1 3T1
Figure 45 Star network with hubs
multiplexing, we can assume that not all the sites in a 3G network connected to the hub will be fully utilized all the time Therefore, there is a chance that we may require only 4 T1s (or even fewer) between the hub and the switch and save on the transmission facilities, either leased lines or microwave
445 Ring Topology
By using radio links in a ring topology network, each node in the ring (ie, each base station in wireless network) is provided with two alternative routes (see Figure 46) In the event of a failure in one link,
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2T1 12T1 2T1 3T1 12T1 BSC 12T1 12T1 1T1
1T1 1T1 12T1
Figure 46 Ring (loop) topology
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the traffic can be sent in the other direction of the ring The main advantage of this configuration is that it improves the availability of the network and can be built using PDH as well as SDH technology If the ring has sufficient capacity to carry all the traffic from every site in both directions, then complete redundancy has been achieved The capacity requirement is the total sum of the individual capacity requirements A PDH ring with maximum capacity of DS3 (28 T1) can then normally handle 14 nodes, with an average capacity of 2 T1s per site Note that the traffic generated at each node, along with grooming, may result in other capacity requirements Unavailability time caused by hardware failure is reduced without the necessity of doubling the radio equipment That means that an unprotected (1 + 0) configuration can be used for all the links forming the ring without sacrificing the availability of the network Most links in the ring use a higher capacity than would be used in a simple tandem chain This means that each link works with lower system gain than in a corresponding tandem chain, which is compensated by less fade margin needed due to the ring protection As a result, the links in a ring-protected network should be able to use smaller antennas It is important to notice that the physical layout does not necessarily have to form a ring; it is the actual flow of traffic (ie logical connection) that determines the ring topology
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