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Figure 52 Coupling losses between antennas
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Far interference is often the primary factor that limits the number of paths that can be set up within a given geographical area Planning an interference-free (in this case, far interference) network will involve the following considerations:
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Knowledge of the geographic locations of the sites, the layout, and dimensioning of the radio-link paths Equipment data Existing network frequency assignments Reasonably accurate radio-wave propagation models
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During reception with interference, the fade margin changes, because the receiver s threshold is degraded assuming that the bit-error ratio is kept unchanged The degradation is generally the result of two contributions: the resulting (total) interference level at the receiver and the receiver noise level The most serious problem caused by interfering transmitters occurs when they transmit at the frequency to which the disturbed receiver is tuned, producing co-channel interference In some rare cases, serious disturbances may arise even when the interfering signal lies in an adjacent and separate channel rather than the channel containing the
Five
desired signal (adjacent channel interference), but this is normally a minor problem in microwave point-to-point networks Both horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) antenna discriminations are generally included in interference calculations The ability of digital channels to tolerate interference depends on the modulation scheme2 In particular, a modulation scheme that requires low C/I for a certain bit-error ratio is more tolerant of interference Robust modulation schemes are, for example, 2PSK and 4PSK, whereas more complex modulation schemes such as 128QAM require much larger C/I-values
534 Frequency Planning
5341 Frequency Planning Objectives The objective of frequency planning is to assign frequencies to a network using as few frequencies as possible and in a manner such that the quality and availability of the radio-link path is minimally affected by interference The following aspects are the basic considerations involved in the assignment of radio frequencies:
Determining a frequency band that is suitable for the speci c link (path length, site location, terrain topography, and atmospheric effects) Prevention of mutual interference such as interference among radio frequency channels in the actual path, interference to and from other radio paths, interference to and from satellite communication systems, and so on Correct selection of a frequency band that allows the required transmission capacity while ef ciently utilizing the available radio frequency spectrum
Allocation (of a frequency band) refers to the frequency administration of a frequency band for the purpose of its use by one or more services This task is normally performed by the ITU Allotment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel) is the frequency administration of required frequency channels of an agreed frequency plan adopted by a competent conference These frequency channels are to be used by one or more administrations in one or more countries or geographic regions Assignment (of a radio frequency or radio frequency channel) is the authorization given by an administration for a radio station to use a radio frequency or radio frequency channel under specified conditions
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Allotment and assignment are created in accordance with the Series F Recommendations given by the ITU-R The allotment consists of one or more alternative radio frequency channel arrangements These arrangements are used in accordance with the rules of the local administration in a country or geographical region In most applications, however, frequency bands and frequency channels are already selected and provided to operators
5342 Frequency Channel Arrangements Channels are segments (subdivisions) of a frequency range or a portion (frequency band) of the electromagnetic spectrum Every channel has a specified bandwidth and, depending on the capacity of the link, a certain number of carriers can be accommodated in the band For instance, a frequency raster may include four adjacent 28-MHz channels (applicable for 34-Mbps links), but each of these channels can be further divided into four 7-MHz channels (applicable for 8 Mbps) To enable four 7-MHz channels to be included within one 28-MHz channel, the center frequencies of the 28- and the 7-MHz channels cannot coincide Likewise, each 7-MHz channel may be divided in two 35-MHz channels (applicable for 2 or 2 2 Mbps) The available frequency band is subdivided into two equal halves: a lower (go) and an upper (return) duplex half The frequency separation between the lowest frequency in the lower half and that of the upper half is known as the duplex spacing (see Figure 54) Each RF channel requires two frequencies (transmit and receive) All transmit frequencies are in one half of the band, and all receive frequencies are in the other half Frequencies are normally assigned so that all frequencies transmitting from a site are either in the high half or the low half of the band The duplex spacing is always sufficiently large that the intended radio equipment can operate interference-free under duplex operation
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