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Microwave Network Design
Equipment shelter 10' 0"
Guy tensioners Cable bridge Chainlink fence 7' 0"
12' 0" 10' 0"
15' 0"
85' 0"
Samobor Tower Site
Harvey Lehpamer HL Telecom Consulting May 29, 2009 Drawing Number: 0752009
Microwave tower site
Five
A rack pro le that shows the equipment mounting position on the rack Wiring diagrams showing equipment and inter-rack wiring, cabling, waveguides runs, and so forth Geographical system layout
Equipment Availability Calculations
A microwave link can become unavailable for a number of reasons, but this calculation includes only predictable equipment failures Therefore, it excludes problems caused by misaligned or failed antenna feeder systems, extended loss of primary power, path propagation outages, human error, and other catastrophic events Short-term (<10 sec) propagation outages are applied to the performance (not availability) objective and will not be used here It is important to define the terms and parameters used in equipment availability calculations as follows: A = 100 (1 U) [%] where A = availability (percentage of time, percent) U = unavailability (percentage of time, percent) For n pieces of equipment connected in series (tandem), U = U1 + U2 + + Un For two pieces of equipment connected in parallel, U = U1U2 (53) (52) (51)
Unavailability of the microwave radio terminal can be expressed as: U =1 MTBF MTBF + MTTR
MTTR U= MTBF + MTTR where
9 MTBF = mean time between failure (MTBF = 10 /FITS) 9 FITS = failures in time (in 10 hrs) MTTR = mean time to repair
(54)
MTTR = RT + TT + (1 P)TR
(55)
Microwave Network Design
where RT = repair time on site TT = travel time to the site P = probability that a spare module is available when needed TR = time to obtain the spare module (assume 24 hrs) FITS (failures in time) is an internationally used unit for measuring or specifying failure rates Because individual components or subsystems are generally highly reliable in their own right, the convention has arisen of using a period of 109 hrs (114,155 yrs) as a time unit or time scale on which to quantify failure rates (or conversely MTTFs); a failure rate of one failure in 109 hrs equals 1 FIT
Example:
The typical protected MW terminal (1 + 1) has MTBF of 2,200,000 hrs; it takes 05 hrs to do the actual repair at the remote site, and the travel time is 3 hrs With good maintenance practice and spare parts available, we can assume P = 95 % (or 095) Let us calculate unavailability of four MW hops connected in tandem (daisy-chain)
MTTR = 05 + 3 + (1 095)24 = 45 hr Microwave hop (excluding all other equipment) has two terminals in series, so the unavailability is 2, 200, 000 = 4091 10 6 U HOP = 2 1 2, 200, 000 + 45 For the four-hop system, total unavailability is UTOT = 4 0000004091 = 0000016364 Total availability is ATOT = 100(1 U TOT ) = 100(1 0000016364) ATOT = 999984 % 9 It is important to notice that this number includes only microwave terminals, and all the other equipment is excluded Calculations that are more detailed should include channel banks and multiplexers, power supplies, and other items
Five
Total unavailability of the microwave link can then be calculated as a sum of the equipment unavailability and the unavailability due to the propagation issues (rain), ie, path unavailability
553 Availability of Different Network Topologies
The question that very often engineers have to answer is related to the selection of the best and most reliable network topology Each topology has its advantages and disadvantages, but here we will analyze them from the prospective of the individual microwave path availability/reliability Unavailability could be caused by hardware failures or propagation problems due to rain, or it could be a combination of both Multipath, under normal propagation conditions, typically does not cause traffic outage and therefore does not contribute to unavailability So, let us for a moment assume that all the link unavailability values are the same, ie, U, and calculate and compare average unavailability per cell site for three different network topologies Shown here is a simplified method of calculation that assumes uncorrelated failures and availability of the switching mechanism (in the ring topology) of 100 percent When we say a transport network is 100 percent restorable, we generally mean that it has a sufficient amount and distribution of spare capacity so that any single failure can be withstood without service outage In principle only dual failures can then cause any service outage There are increasing numbers of mission critical services calling for as little as 30 seconds (or less) of unavailability per year This may actually require the ability to withstand certain types of dual failures and motivates analysis of the effects of dual failures on single failure restorable designs Dual failure analysis is beyond the scope of this book and will not be discussed here
5531 Linear and Star/Hub Topology The following calculation, based on Figure 57, shows an average improvement of 40 percent in BTS availability (or reduction in unavailability) for the star/hub network topology over linear (daisy-chaining) topology Linear (Daisy-chain or tandem) Topology
UTOT = U6 + U7 + U8 + U9 + U10 UTOT = U + 2U + 3U + 4U + 5U = 15U UBTS = 15U/5 = 3U (per BTS)
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