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The latest (and most likely last) PATA standard, called ATA/ATAPI-7, provides support for very large hard drives (144 petabytes, a number greater than 144 million GB) at speeds up to 133 MB per second (MBps) All PATA drives use a standard Molex power connector (Figure 82) Slower PATA drives (33 MBps and slower) can get by with a 40-pin ribbon cable Drives that go 66 MBps or faster require an 80-wire cable Figure 83 shows both types of cables, and Table 81 shows the types of PATA drives you might see in the field
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FIGURE 82
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Molex connector
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FIGURE 83
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You can connect up to two PATA drives including hard drives, optical drives, and tape drives to a single ATA controller
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You should know that the technologies that enabled steadily larger drive size are Logical Block Addressing (LBA) (up to 8 GB), INT 13 extensions (up to 137 GB), and ATA/ATAPI-6 (up to 144 PB)
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SATA
For all its longevity as the mass storage interface of choice for the PC, parallel ATA has problems First, the flat ribbon cables impede airflow and can be a pain to insert properly Second, the cables have a limited length, only 18 inches Third, you can t hot-swap PATA drives You have to shut down completely before installing or replacing a drive Finally, the technology has simply reached the limits of what it can do in terms of throughput Serial ATA addresses these issues SATA creates a point-to-point connection between the SATA device hard disk, CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD-ROM, DVD-RW, and so on and the SATA controller At a glance, SATA devices look identical to standard PATA devices Take a closer look at the cable and power connectors, however, and you ll see significant differences (Figure 84)
TABLE 81 Name
Common PATA Drive Types
Transfer Mode
Speed
Cable Type
ATA/33 ATA/66 ATA/100 ATA/133
Ultra DMA mode 2 Ultra DMA mode 3 Ultra DMA mode 4 Ultra DMA mode 5
33 MBps 66 MBps 100 MBps 133 MBps
40-pin 80-wire 80-wire 80-wire
CHAPTER 8 Hard Drives
Data port Power port Data cable Power cable
FIGURE 84
SATA power and data connectors
Because SATA devices send data serially instead of in parallel, the SATA interface needs far fewer physical wires seven instead of the 80 wires typical of PATA resulting in much thinner cabling This might not seem significant, but the benefit is that thinner cabling means better cable control and better airflow through the PC case, resulting in better cooling Further, the maximum SATA device cable length is more than twice that of a PATA cable about 40 inches (1 meter) instead of 18 inches Again, this might not seem like a big deal, unless you ve struggled to connect a PATA hard disk installed into the top bay of a full-tower case to a PATA connector located all the way at the bottom of the motherboard SATA does away with the entire master/slave concept Each drive connects to one port, so no more daisy-chaining drives Further, there s no maximum number of drives many motherboards are now available that support up to eight SATA drives Want more Snap in a SATA host card and load em up The big news, however, is in data throughput As the name implies, SATA devices transfer data in serial bursts instead of parallel, as PATA devices do Typically, you might not think of serial devices as being faster than parallel, but in this case, that s how it works A SATA device s single stream of data moves much faster than the multiple streams of data coming from a PATA device theoretically up to 30 times faster SATA drives come in two common varieties, the 15Gb and the 3Gb, that have a maximum throughput of 150 MBps and 300 MBps, respectively
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SATA s ease of use has made it the choice for desktop system storage, and its success is already showing in the fact that more than 90 percent of all hard drives sold today are SATA drives
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