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Mike Meyers CompTIA A+ Guide: Essentials (Exam 220-601)
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Niche Market Power Supply Form Factors The demand for smaller and quieter PCs and, to a lesser extent, the emergence of the BTX form factor has led to the development of a number of niche market power supply form factors All use standard ATX connectors, but differ in size and shape from standard ATX power supplies
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You ll commonly find niche market power supplies bundled with computer cases (and often motherboards as well) These form factors are rarely sold alone
SFX12V A small power form factor optimized for systems using FlexATX motherboards (Figure 825) CFX12V systems LFX12V systems An L-shaped power supply optimized for microBTX A small power form factor optimized for low-profile BTX
Active PFC Visualize the AC current coming from the power company as water in a pipe, smoothly moving back and forth, 60 times a second A PC s power supply, simply due to the process of changing this AC current into DC current, is like a person sucking on a straw on the end of this pipe, taking gulps only when the current is fully pushing or pulling at the top and bottom of each cycle, creating an electrical phenomena sort of a back pressure that s called harmonics in the power industry These harmonics create the humming sound that you hear from electrical components Over time, harmonics damage electrical equipment, causing serious problems with the power supply and other electrical devices on the circuit Once you put a few thousand PCs with power supplies in the same local area, harmonics can even damage the electrical power supplier s equipment! Good PC power supplies come with active power factor correction (active PFC) , extra circuitry that smoothes out the way the power supply takes power from the power company and eliminates harmonics (Figure 826) Never buy a power supply that does not have active PFC all power supplies with active PFC will proudly show you on the box
The CompTIA A+ 220-602 and 220-604 exams test you pretty heavily on power supplies You need to know what power supply will work with a particular system or with a particular computing goal in mind
Figure 826 Figure 825
SFX power supply
Power supply showing active PFC
8: Understanding PC Power
Wattage Requirements
The CompTIA A+ Certification exams do not require you to figure precise wattage needs for a particular system When building a PC for a client, however, you do need to know this stuff!
Tech Tip
Build in Aging
Don t cut the specifications too tightly for power supplies All power supplies produce less wattage over time, simply because of wear and tear on the internal components If you build a system that runs with only a few watts of extra power available from the power supply initially, that system will most likely start causing problems within a year or less! Do yourself or your clients a favor and get a power supply that has more wattage than you need
Every device in a PC requires a certain amount of wattage in order to function A typical hard drive draws 15 watts of power when accessed, for example, whereas some Athlon 64 X2 CPUs draw a whopping 110 watts at peak usage with average usage around 70 watts The total wattage of all devices combined is the minimum you need the power supply to provide If the power supply cannot produce the wattage needed by a system, that PC won t work properly Because most devices in the PC require maximum wattage when first starting, the most common result of insufficient wattage is a paperweight that looks like a PC This can lead to some embarrassing moments You might plug in a new hard drive for a client, for example, push the power button on the case, and nothing happens a dead PC! Eek! You can quickly determine if insufficient wattage is the problem Unplug the drive and power up the system If the system boots up, the power supply is a likely suspect The only fix for this problem is to replace the power supply with one that provides more wattage (or leave the new drive out a less-than-ideal solution) No power supply can turn 100 percent of the AC power coming from the power company into DC current So all power supplies provide less power to the system than the wattage advertised on the box ATX12V 20 standards require a power supply to be at least 70 percent efficient, but you can find power supplies with better than 80 percent efficiency More efficiency can tell you how many watts the system puts out to the PC in actual use Plus, the added efficiency means the power supply uses less power, saving you money One common argument these days is that people buy power supplies that provide far more wattage than a system needs and therefore waste power This is untrue A power supply provides only the amount of power your system needs If you put a 1000-watt power supply (yes, they really exist) into a system that needs only 250 watts, that big power supply will put out only 250 watts to the system So buying an efficient, higher wattage power supply gives you two benefits: First, running a power supply at less than 100 percent load lets it live longer Second, you ll have plenty of extra power when adding new components As a general recommendation for a new system, use at least a 400-watt power supply This is a common wattage and will give you plenty of extra power for booting as well as for whatever other components you might add to the system in the future
Mike Meyers CompTIA A+ Guide: Essentials (Exam 220-601)
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