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The Windows format of choice these days is the NT File System (NTFS) NTFS came out a long time ago with the first version of Windows NT, thus the name Over the years, NTFS has undergone a number of improvements The version used in Windows 2000 is NTFS 30; the version used in Windows XP and Vista is called NTFS 31, although you ll see it referred to as NTFS 50/51 (Windows 2000 was unofficially Windows NT version 5) NTFS uses clusters and file allocation tables but in a much more complex and powerful way compared to FAT or FAT32 NTFS offers six major improvements and refinements: redundancy, security, compression, encryption, disk quotas, and cluster sizing
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NTFS Structure
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NTFS utilizes an enhanced file allocation table called the master file table (MFT) An NTFS partition keeps a backup copy of the most critical parts of the MFT in the middle of the disk, reducing the chance that a serious drive error can wipe out both the MFT and the MFT copy Whenever you defragment an NTFS partition, you ll see a small, immovable chunk in the middle of the drive; that s the backup MFT (Figure 920)
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NTFS views individual files and folders as objects and provides security for those objects through a feature called the access control list (ACL) Future chapters go into this in much more detail, but a quick example here should make the basic concept clear
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Mike Meyers CompTIA A+ Guide: Essentials (Exam 220-601)
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Microsoft has never released the exact workings of NTFS to the public
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All four of the CompTIA A+ exams test you on NTFS, such as when to use it, what advantages it has over FAT32, and how to lock down information You ll also be quizzed on the tools, such as Disk Management, in all four exams Don t skip anything in this chapter!
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Figure 920
An NTFS MFT appearing in a defragmenter program
Suppose Bill the IT Guy sets up a Windows XP PC as a workstation for three users: John, Wilma, and Felipe John logs into the PC with his user name and password (johns and f3f2f1f0, respectively, in case you re curious) and begins to work on his project The project folder is stored on the C: drive as C:\Projects\JohnSuperSecret When John saves his work and gets ready to leave, he alters the permissions on his folder to deny access to anyone but him When curious Wilma logs into the PC after John leaves, she cannot access the C:\Programs\JohnSuperSecret folder contents at all, although she can see the entry in Explorer Without the ACL provided by NTFS, John would have no security over his files or folders at all
Compression
NTFS enables you to compress individual files and folders to save space on a hard drive Compression makes access time to the data slower, because the OS has to uncompress files every time you use them, but in a space-limited environment, sometimes that s what you have to do
Encrypting File System
One of the big draws with NTFS is file encryption, the black art of making files unreadable to anybody who doesn t have the right key You can encrypt a single file, a folder, and a folder full of files Microsoft calls the encryption utility in NTFS the encrypting file system (EFS) , but it s simply an aspect of NTFS, not a standalone file system To encrypt a file or folder, right-click it in My Computer and select Properties to open the Properties dialog box (Figure 921) Click the Advanced button to open the Advanced 225
9: Implementing Hard Drives
Figure 921
Folder Properties
Attributes dialog box As you can see in Figure 922, encryption (and compression) is simply a selectable checkbox Click the box next to Encrypt contents to secure data and then click the OK button instantly your file is safe from prying eyes! Encryption does not hide files; it simply makes them unreadable to other users Figure 923 shows a couple of encrypted image files Note that in addition to the pale green color of the filenames (that you can t tell are pale green in this black-and-white image), the files seem readily accessible Windows XP can t provide a thumbnail, however, even though it can read the type of image file (JPEG) easily Further, double-clicking the files opens the Windows Picture
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