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The earliest Ethernet networks connected using coaxial cable By definition, coaxial cable (coax for short) is a cable within a cable two cables that share the same center or axis Coax consists of a center cable (core) surrounded by insulation This in turn is covered with a shield of braided cable The inner core actually carries the signal The shield effectively eliminates outside interference The entire cable is then surrounded by a protective insulating cover
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You ve seen coaxial cable before, most likely, although perhaps not in a networking situation Your cable TV and antenna cables are coaxial, usually RG-59 or the highly shielded RG-6 Watch out for questions on the exams dealing specifically with networking hardware protocols, trying to trip you up with television-grade coaxial answers!
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The original Xerox Ethernet specification that eventually became known as 10Base5 defined a very specific type of coaxial cabling for the first Ethernet networks, called Thick Ethernet (In fact, the name for the cable became synonymous with the 10Base5 specification) Thick Ethernet, also known as Thicknet , was a very thick (about half an inch in diameter) type of coaxial called RG-8 RG stands for Radio Grade, an industry standard for measuring coaxial cables The 10 in 10Base5 refers to the fact that data could move through an RG-8 cable at up to 10 Mbps with this Ethernet standard Every PC in a 10Base5 network connected to a single cable, called a segment or bus Thicknet supported attaching up to 100 devices to one segment The maximum length of a Thicknet segment was 500 meters that s what the 5 in 10Base5 meant (Figure 185) Networks like 10Base5 are laid out in a bus topology Bus Topology The Ethernet bus topology works like a big telephone party line before any device can send a packet, devices on the bus must first determine that no other device is sending a packet on the cable (Figure 186) When a device sends its packet out over the bus, every other network card on the bus sees and reads the packet Ethernet s scheme of having devices communicate like they were in a chat room is called carrier sense multiple access/collision detection (CSMA/CD) Sometimes two cards talk (send packets) at the same time This creates a collision, and the cards themselves arbitrate to decide which one will resend its packet first (Figure 187) All PCs on a bus network share a common wire, which also means they share the data transfer capacity of that wire or, in tech terms, they
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Devices can t send packets while others are talking
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Collisions result when two devices send simultaneously
share its bandwidth This creates an interesting effect Ten PCs chatting on a bus each get to use a much higher proportion of its total bandwidth than, for instance, 100 PCs on the same bus (in this case, one-tenth compared to one-hundredth) The more PCs on a bus, the more likely you ll have a communication traffic jam This problem does not get solved until you get beyond coaxial Ethernet
Reflection and Termination The ends of the bus present a bit of a problem for the signal moving along the wire Any time a device sends voltage along a wire, some voltage bounces back, or reflects, when it reaches the end of the wire (Figure 188) Network cables are no exception Because of CSMA/CD, these packets reflecting back and forth on the cable would bring the network down The NICs that want to send data would wait for no reason because they would misinterpret the reflections as a busy signal After a short while, the bus will get so full of reflecting packets that no other card can send data To prevent packets from being reflected, a device called a terminator must be plugged into the end of the bus cable (Figure 189) A terminator is nothing more than a resistor that absorbs the signal, preventing reflection (Figure 1810) The bus topology s need for termination is a weak spot If the cable breaks anywhere, the reflections quickly build up and no device can send data, even if the break is not between the devices attempting to exchange data Connections Thicknet was clearly marked every 25 meters (Figure 1811) These marks showed where to connect devices to the cable All devices on a Thicknet connected at these marks to ensure that all devices were some multiple of 25 meters apart Devices are connected to Thicknet by means of a vampire connector A vampire connector was so named because it actually pierces the cable to