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At this point in the discussion of networking, you ve covered two of the four main requirements for making a network work Through Ethernet or Token Ring hardware protocols, you have a NIC for the PC that handles splitting data into packets and putting the packets back together at the destination PC You ve got a cabling standard to connect the NIC to a hub/switch or MSAU, thus making that data transfer possible Now it s time to dive into the third and fourth requirements for a network You need an operating system that can communicate with the hardware and with other networked PCs, and you need some sort of server machine to give out data or services The third and fourth requirements are handled by a network operating system In a classic sense, a network operating system (NOS) communicates with the PC hardware of whichever hardware protocol and makes the connections among multiple machines on a network The NOS enables one or more PCs to act as a server machine and share data and services over a network to share resources , in other words You then need to run software on client computers to enable those computers to access the shared resources on the server machine Every Windows OS is an NOS and enables the PC to share resources and access shared resources But it doesn t come out of the box ready to work on all networks! You need to configure Windows to handle all three tasks to make all this work: install a network protocol to communicate with hardware, enable server software to share resources, and install client software to enable the PC to access shared resources All NOSs are not alike, even among Windows Before you can share resources across a network, you must answer a number of questions How do
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you make that happen Can everyone share his or her hard drives with everyone else Should you place limits on sharing If everyone needs access to a particular file, where will it be stored What about security Can anyone access the file What if someone erases it accidentally How are backups to be handled Different NOSs answer these questions differently Let s look at network organization and then turn to protocols, client software, and server software
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All NOSs can be broken into three basic organizational groups: client/ server, peer-to-peer, and domain-based All Windows PCs can function as network clients and servers, so this muddies the waters a bit Let s take a look at traditional network organization
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In a client/server network , one machine is dedicated as a resource to be shared over the network This machine will have a dedicated NOS optimized for sharing files This special OS includes powerful caching software that enables high-speed file access It will have extremely high levels of protection and an organization that permits extensive control of the data This machine is called a dedicated server All of the other machines that use the data are called clients (because it s what they usually are) or workstations The client/server system dedicates one machine to act as a server Its The terms client and server only function is to serve up resources to the other machines on the network are, to say the least, freely used These servers do not run Windows 9x or Windows XP They use highly sophisin the Windows world Keep in ticated and expensive NOSs that are optimized for the sharing and administramind that a client generally retion of network resources Dedicated server operating systems include fers to any process (or in this context, computer system) that Windows 2003 Server, Novell NetWare, and some versions of Linux can request a resource or serNovell NetWare servers provide the purest example of a dedicated vice, and a server is any process server A NetWare server doesn t provide a user environment for running (or system) that can fulfill the any applications except for tools and utilities It just serves shared resources; request it does not run programs such as Excel or CorelDraw Many network administrators will even remove the keyboard and monitor from a Cross Check NetWare server to keep people from trying to use it NetWare has NTFS Permissions its own commands and requires NTFS permissions enable strong data security, even when sharing files substantial training to use, but in and folders across a network, so now is a good time to revisit 9 return, you get an amazingly and refresh your memory on NTFS powerful NOS! While Linux and Windows 2003 server machines 1 How do you access the permissions for a file or folder can technically run client applica2 Which permission would stop someone from modifying a file on tions such as word processors, your server, but still enable him or her to read the contents of they have been optimized to functhat file tion as servers and you don t 3 What s up with Windows XP Home and permissions, anyway typically use them to run end-user applications
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