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Figure 65
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Function of system and expansion bus crystals
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6: Understanding the Expansion Bus
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about 716 MHz The latest expansion buses run much faster, but remember that old speed of roughly 7 MHz; as you learn more about expansion slots, you ll see that it s still needed on even the most modern systems
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On first-generation IBM PCs, the 8088 CPU had an 8-bit external data bus and ran at a top speed of 477 MHz IBM made the expansion slots on the first PCs with an 8-bit external bus connection IBM wanted the bus to run as fast as the CPU, and even way back then 477 MHz was an easy speed to achieve IBM settled on a standard expansion bus speed of about 7 MHz faster than the CPU! (This was the only occurrence in the history of PCs that the expansion bus was faster than the CPU) This expansion bus was called the PC bus or XT bus Figure 66 shows these ancient, 8-bit expansion slots IBM certainly didn t invent the idea of the expansion bus plenty of earlier computers, including many mainframes, had expansion slots but IBM did something no one had ever done They allowed competitors to copy the PC bus and make their own PCs without having to pay a licensing or royalty fee They also allowed third parties to make cards that would snap into their PC bus Remember that IBM invented the PC bus it was (and still is) a patented product of IBM Corporation By allowing everyone to copy the PC expansion bus technology, however, IBM established the industry standard and fostered the emergence of the clone market If IBM had not allowed others to copy their patented technologies for free, companies such as Compaq, Dell, and Gateway never would have existed Equally, component makers like Logitech, Creative, and 3Com would never be the companies they are today without the help of IBM Who knows If IBM had not opened the PC bus to the world, this book and the A+ Certification exams might have been based on Apple computers! PC Bus
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8 bits wide 7-MHz speed Manual configuration
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When Intel invented the 286 processor, IBM wanted to create a new expansion bus that took advantage of the 286 s 16-bit external data bus, yet also supported 8-bit cards IBM achieved this by simply adding a set of connections to the end of the PC bus, creating a new 16-bit bus (Figure 67) Many techs called this bus the AT bus after the first system to use these slots, the 286-based IBM Advanced Technology (AT) computer The AT bus ran at the
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Figure 66
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Mike Meyers CompTIA A+ Guide: Essentials (Exam 220-601)
same speed (approximately 7 MHz) as the earlier PC bus Even though IBM allowed third parties to copy the PC and AT expansion bus architecture, they never released the complete specifications for these two types of expansion buses A number of clone makers got together in the early 1980s and pooled their combined knowledge of the PC/XT and AT buses to create the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) The ISA bus enabled manufacturers to jump the first of the three hurdles for successful expansion cards, namely connectivity If a company wanted to build a new kind of adapter card for the PC, they simply followed the specifications in the ISA standard ISA Bus
Figure 67
Sixteen-bit ISA or AT slots
16 bits wide 7-MHz speed Manual configuration
Essentials
Modern Expansion Buses
The ISA expansion bus was both excellent and cutting edge for its time, and was the expansion bus in every PC for the first ten years of the PC s existence Yet ISA suffered from three tremendous limitations that began to cause serious bottlenecks by the late 1980s First, ISA was slow, running at only about 7 MHz Second, ISA was narrow only 16 bits wide and therefore unable to handle the 32-bit and 64-bit external data buses of more modern processors Finally, techs had to configure ISA cards manually, making installation a time-consuming nightmare of running proprietary configuration programs and moving tiny jumpers just to get a single card to work Manufacturers clearly needed to come up with a better bus that addressed the many problems associated with ISA They needed a bus that could take advantage of the 33-MHz motherboard speed and 32-bit-wide data bus found in 386 and 486 systems They also wanted a bus that was self-configuring, freeing techs from the drudgery of manual configuration Finally, they had to make the new bus backward compatible, so end users wouldn t have to throw out their oftentimes substantial investment in ISA expansion cards
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