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OSI Seven-Layer Model
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A lot of people think about networks and troubleshoot networking issues using the OSI seven-layer model Using this model (or my four-layer model, described in the next section of this chapter) helps you isolate problems and then implement solutions Here are the seven layers of the OSI model:
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Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4 Layer 5 Layer 6 Layer 7
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Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application
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The Physical layer defines the physical form taken by data when it travels across a cable Devices that work at the Physical layer include NICs, hubs, and switches Figure 1624 shows a sending NIC turning a string of ones and
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16: Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks
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Figure 1624
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zeroes into an electrical signal, and a receiving NIC turning it back into the same ones and zeroes The Data Link layer defines the rules for accessing and using the Physical layer MAC addresses and Ethernet s CSMA/CD operate at the Data Link layer The Network layer defines the rules for adding information to the data packet that controls how routers move it from its source on one network to its destination on a different network The IP protoThe Physical layer turns binary code into a physical col that handles IP addressing works on Layer 3 signal and back into ones and zeroes The Transport layer, Layer 4, breaks up data it receives from the upper layers (that is, Layers 5 7) into smaller pieces for transport within the data packets created at the lower layers In TCP/IP networks, the protocols that typically handle this transition between upper and lower layers are TCP and UDP The Session layer manages the connections between machines on the network Protocols such as NetBIOS and sockets enable a computer to connect to a server, for example, and send and receive e-mail or download a file Each different task you can perform on a server would require a different kind of session The Presentation layer presents data from the sending system in a form that a receiving system can understand Most Layer 6 functions are handled by the same software that handles Layer 7 functions The Application layer is where you (or a user) get to interact with the computers These are programs that make networking happen, such as Web browsers and e-mail applications 17, The Internet, covers these applications in a lot more detail The key to using the OSI seven-layer model is to ask the traditional troubleshooting question: What can the problem be If Jill can t browse a Web site, for example, could this be a Layer 7 issue Sure: If her browser software was messed up, this could stop her from browsing It could also be a lower level problem, though, and you need to run through the questions Can she do anything over the network If her NIC doesn t show flashing link lights, that could point all the way down to the Physical layer and a bad NIC, cable, hub, or switch If she has good connectivity to the overall network but can t ping the Web server, that could point to a different problem altogether Figure 1625 shows the OSI seven-layer model graphically The only drawback to the OSI seven-layer model, in my view, is that it s too complex I like to conceptualize network issues into fewer layers four to be precise Let s take a look
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Mike s Four-Layer Model
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Figure 1625
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Network problems, by the very nature of the complexity of a network, usually make for more complex problems Given that, I have created a four-step process that I modestly call Mike s
Mike Meyers CompTIA A+ Guide: PC Technician (Exams 220-602, 220-603, & 220-604)
Four-Layer Model These four things go through my mind every time I have a problem I think about four distinct categories to help me isolate the symptoms and make the right fix
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