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Hardware
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Hardware is probably the most self-explanatory of the four categories This covers the many different ways data can be moved from one PC to another Does the system have a good connection how s the cabling This also covers network cards are they installed properly and tested Plus, the hardware category hits on all of those interesting boxes, such as hubs, switches, and repeaters, among which all of the wires in the network run If you can see it, it s under this category
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This category covers the protocols, such as TCP/IP or NetBEUI Is the protocol installed Is it configured properly Does any particular system s configuration prevent it from working with another system
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The network category has two parts: servers and clients Network operating systems must differentiate systems that act as servers from those that do not If a system is a server, some process must take place to tell it to share resources Additionally, if a system is intended to share, it must be given a name This category also includes defining and verifying users and groups does your system need them Do the right accounts exist, and are they working properly
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Once all the systems, users, and groups are working properly, you need to identify the resources they will share If a drive or folder is to be shared, the OS must provide a way to identify that drive or folder as available for sharing The rules for naming shared resources are called naming conventions A great example would be a system that offers its D:\FRED directory for sharing This D:\FRED directory needs a network name, such as FRED_FILES This network name is displayed to all of the devices on the network Sharing a resource is only half the battle Individual systems need to be able to access the shared resources The network needs a process whereby a PC can look out on the network and see what is available Having found those available resources, the PC then needs to make them look and act as though they were local resources A network also needs to control access to resources A laser printer, for example, might be available for sharing, but only for the accounting department, excluding other departments
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16: Maintaining and Troubleshooting Networks
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Summary
After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, you should understand the following about maintaining and troubleshooting networks but otherwise you must rely on configuration tools provided by the wireless network adapter vendor
Installing and Configuring a Wireless Network
The types of wireless radio wave networks you ll find yourself supporting these days are those based on the IEEE 80211 wireless Ethernet standard Wi-Fi and those based on the newer Bluetooth technology Wireless networks using infrared light use the IrDA protocol Wireless networking capabilities of one form or another are built into many modern computing devices Infrared transceiver ports have been standard issue on portable computers, PDAs, and high-end printers for years Wireless Ethernet and Bluetooth capabilities are increasingly popular as integrated components, or they can easily be added using USB, PCI, PCI Express, or PC Card adapters Many handheld computers and PDAs have wireless capabilities built in or available as add-on options To extend the capabilities of a wireless Ethernet network, such as connecting to a wired network or sharing a high-speed Internet connection, you need a WAP A WAP centrally connects wireless network nodes in the same way that a hub connects wired Ethernet PCs Wireless devices use the same networking protocols and client that their wired counterparts use, and they operate using the CSMA/CA networking scheme, where nodes check before broadcasting Wireless nodes also use the RTS/ CTS protocol When enabled, a transmitting node that determines that the wireless medium is clear to use sends an RTS frame to the receiving node The receiving node responds with a CTS frame, telling the sending node that it s okay to transmit Then, once the data is sent, the transmitting node waits for an acknowledgment (ACK) from the receiving node before sending the next data packet You will need a utility to set parameters such as your SSID Windows XP has built-in tools for this,
The simplest wireless network consists of two or more PCs communicating directly with each other without cabling or any other intermediary hardware (ad-hoc mode) More complicated wireless networks use a WAP to centralize wireless communication and bridge wireless network segments to wired network segments (infrastructure mode) Ad-hoc networks are also good for temporary networks such as study groups or business meetings Infrastructure mode is better suited to business networks or networks that need to share dedicated resources like Internet connections and centralized databases Out of the box, wireless networks have no security configured at all WAPs are usually configured to broadcast their presence to their maximum range and welcome all other wireless devices that respond Data packets are floating through the air instead of safely wrapped up inside network cabling Most WAPs support MAC address filtering, a method that enables you to limit access to your wireless network based on the physical, hardwired address of the unit s wireless network adapter Enabling WEP encrypts your data to secure it while in transit over the airwaves, but the WEP encryption standard itself is flawed and cannot be relied upon to protect your data against a knowledgeable and motivated attacker WPA and WPA2 address the weaknesses of WEP and act as a sort of security protocol upgrade to WEP-enabled devices WPA and WPA2 offer security enhancements such as an encryption key integrity checking feature and user authentication through the industry-standard EAP Depending on the standard used, wireless throughput speeds range from 2 Mbps to 54 Mbps Wireless devices dynamically negotiate the top speed that they can communicate at without dropping too many data packets
Mike Meyers CompTIA A+ Guide: PC Technician (Exams 220-602, 220-603, & 220-604)
Wireless networking speed and range are greatly affected by outside factors, such as interference from other wireless devices or solid objects A wireless device s true effective range is probably about half the theoretical maximum listed by the manufacturer 80211a differs from the other 80211-based standards in significant ways Foremost, it operates in a different frequency range, 5 GHz, so 80211a devices are less prone to interference 80211a also offers considerably greater throughput than 80211 and 80211b at speeds up to 54 Mbps, but its range tops out at only about 150 feet 80211a isn t widely adopted in the PC world 80211b is practically ubiquitous in wireless networking The 80211b standard supports data throughput of up to 11 Mbps on par with older wired 10BaseT networks and a range of up to 300 feet under ideal conditions The 80211g standard offers data transfer speeds equivalent to 80211a, up to 54 Mbps, with the wider 300-foot range of 80211b Because 80211g is backward compatible with 80211b, the same 80211g WAP can service both 80211b and 80211b wireless nodes Wireless networking using infrared (IR) technology is enabled via the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) protocol stack, a widely supported industry standard, and has been included in all versions of Windows since Windows 95 IR is designed to make only a point-to-point connection between two devices in ad-hoc mode of up to 4 Mbps, at a maximum distance of 1 meter Bluetooth wireless technology is designed to create small wireless Personal Area Networks (PANs) that link PCs to peripheral devices such as PDAs and printers, input devices such as keyboards and mice, and even consumer electronics such as cell phones, home stereos, televisions, home security systems, and so on Bluetooth is not designed to be a full-function networking solution Cellular wireless networks enable you to connect to the Internet through a network-aware PDA or cell phone with download speeds up to 700 Kbps Cellular networks use various protocols, including GSM, GPRS, and CDMA While pricey, it is sometimes your only option in remote areas
The mechanics of setting up a wireless network don t differ much from a wired network Physically installing a wireless network adapter is the same as installing a wired NIC, whether it s an internal PCI card, a PC Card, or an external USB device Simply install the device and let plug and play handle detection and resource allocation Unless you re using Windows XP, you also need to install the wireless network configuration utility supplied with your wireless network adapter so that you can set your communication mode, SSID, and so on Wi-Fi networks support ad-hoc and infrastructure operation modes Which mode you choose depends on the number of wireless nodes you need to support, the type of data sharing they ll perform, and your management requirements Ad-hoc wireless networks don t need a WAP The only requirements in an ad-hoc mode wireless network are that each wireless node be configured with the same network name (SSID) and that no two nodes use the same IP address You may also have to select a common channel for all ad-hoc nodes Typically, infrastructure mode wireless networks employ one or more WAPs connected to a wired network segment, a corporate intranet or the Internet, or both As with ad-hoc mode wireless networks, infrastructure mode networks require that the same SSID be configured on all nodes and WAPs WAPs have an integrated Web server and are configured through a browser-based setup utility Typically, you enter the WAP s default IP address to bring up the configuration page and supply an administrative password, included with your WAP s documentation, to log in Set up WEP encryption if that s your only option by turning encryption on at the WAP and then generating a unique security key Then configure all connected wireless nodes on the network with the same key information WPA and WPA2 encryption are configured in much the same way You may be required to input a valid user name and password to configure encryption using WPA/WPA2
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