how to make barcode reader software in java 17: Video in Software

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17: Video
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Figure 1761
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Vertices for a 3-D airplane
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vertex has a defined X, Y, and Z position in a 3-D world Figure 1761 shows the vertices for an airplane in a 3-D world The computer must track all the vertices of all the objects in the 3-D world, including the ones you cannot currently see Keep in mind that objects may be motionless in the 3-D world (like a wall), may have animation (like a door opening and closing), or may be moving (like bad monsters trying to spray you with evil alien goo) This calculation process is called transformation and, as you might imagine, is extremely taxing to most CPUs Intel s SIMD and AMD s 3DNow! processor extensions were expressly designed to perform transformations Once the CPU has determined the positions of all vertices, the system then begins to fill in the 3-D object The process begins by drawing lines (the 3-D term is edges) between vertices to build the 3-D object into many triangles Why triangles Well, mainly by consensus of game developers Any shape works, but triangles make the most sense from a mathematical standpoint I could go into more depth here, but that would require talking about trigonometry, and I m gambling you d rather not read that detailed of a description! All 3-D games use triangles to connect vertices The 3-D process then groups triangles together into various shapes called polygons Figure 1762 shows the same model from Figure 1761, now displaying all the connected vertices to create a large number of polygons Originally, the CPU handled these calculations to create triangles, but now special 3-D video cards do the job, greatly speeding up the process The last step in second-generation games was texturing Every 3-D game stores a number of bitmaps called textures The program wraps textures around the object to give it a surface Textures work well as they provide dramatic detail without the need to use a lot of triangles A single object may take one texture or many textures applied to single triangles or groups of triangles (polygons) Figure 1763 shows the finished airplane
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Figure 1762
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Connected vertices forming polygons on a 3-D airplane
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Figure 1763
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3-D airplane with textures added
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These second-generation games made a much more realistic environment, but the heavy demands of true 3-D often forced game designers to use both 3-D and sprites in the same game Figure 1764 shows the famous game DOOM Note that the walls, floors, doors, and such were 3-D images, whereas the bad guys continued to manifest as sprites Notice how pixilated the bad guy looks compared to the rest of the scene True 3-D, more often referred to as rendered objects, immediately created the need for massively powerful video cards and much wider data buses Intel s primary motivation for creating AGP was to provide a big enough pipe for massive data pumping between the video card and the CPU Intel gave AGP the ability to read system RAM to support textures If it weren t for 3-D games, AGP would almost certainly not exist
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Figure 1764
A mix of 3-D objects and sprites
3-D Video Cards
No CPU of the mid-1990s could ever hope to handle the massive processes required to render 3-D worlds Keep in mind that in order to create realistic movement, the 3-D world must refresh at least 24 times per second That means that this entire process, from transformation to texturing, must repeat once every 1/24th of a second! Furthermore, while the game re-creates each screen, it must also keep score, track the position of all the objects in the game, provide some type of intelligence to the bad guys, and so on Something had to happen to take the workload off the CPU The answer came from video cards Video cards were developed with smart onboard graphics processing units (GPUs) The GPU helped the CPU by taking over some, and eventually all, the 3-D rendering duties These video cards not only have GPUs but also have massive amounts of RAM to store textures But a problem exists with this setup: How do we talk to these cards This is done by means of a device driver, of course, but wouldn t it be great if we could create standard commands to speed up the process The best thing to do would be to create a standardized set of instructions that any 3-D program could send to a video card to do all the basic work, such as make a cone or lay texture 237 on the cone you just made The video card instructions standards manifested themselves into a series of application programming interfaces (APIs) In essence, an API is a library of commands that people who make 3-D games must use in their programs The program currently using the video card sends API commands directly to the device driver Device drivers must know how to understand the API commands If you were to picture the graphics system of your computer as a layer cake, the top layer would be the program making a call to the video card driver that then directs the graphics hardware Several different APIs have been developed over the years with two clear winners among all of them: OpenGL and DirectX The OpenGL standard was developed for UNIX systems, but has since been ported, or made
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