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Every Tier 1 and Tier 2 provider leases connections to the Internet to companies called Internet service providers (ISPs) ISPs essentially sit along the edges of the Tier 1 and Tier 2 Internet and tap into the flow You can, in turn, lease some of the connections from the ISP and thus get on the Internet ISPs come in all sizes America Online (AOL) has a huge pipe into the Internet, enabling its millions of customers (in the US alone) to connect from their local machines and surf the Web Contrast AOL with Unisono net, an ISP in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico (Figure 224) Billed as the Best ISP in San Miguel, it services only a small (but delightful) community and the busy tourist crowd Functionally, though, Unisono net does the same thing AOL does, just without all the bells, whistles, and mountains of free CD-ROMs!
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Figure 224
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22: The Internet
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Connecting to an ISP requires two things to work perfectly: hardware for connectivity, such as a modem and a working telephone line; and software, such as protocols to govern the connections and the data flow (all configured in Windows), and applications to take advantage of the various TCP/ IP services Once you have a contract with an ISP to grant you access to the Internet, the ISP gives you TCP/IP configuration numbers and data so you can set up your software to connect directly to a router at the ISP that becomes your gateway to the Internet The router to which you connect at the ISP, by the way, is often referred to as the default gateway Once you configure your software correctly, you can connect to the ISP and get to the greater Internet Figure 225 shows a standard PC-to-ISP-to-Internet connection Note that various protocols and other software manage the connectivity between your PC and the default gateway Simplified Internet connectivity
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Figure 225
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PCs commonly connect to an ISP using one of seven technologies: dial-up, both analog and ISDN; dedicated, such as DSL, cable, and LAN; wireless; and satellite Analog dial-up is the slowest of the bunch and requires a telephone line and a special networking device called a modem ISDN uses digital dial-up and has much greater speed All the others use a regular Ethernet NIC like you played with in 21 Satellite is the odd man out here; it may use either a modem or a NIC, depending on the particular configuration you have, although most folks will use a modem Let s take a look at all these various connection options
Dial-up
A dial-up connection to the Internet requires two pieces to work: hardware to dial the ISP, such as a modem or ISDN terminal adapter; and software to govern the connection, such as Microsoft s Dial-up Networking (DUN) Let s look at the hardware first, and then we ll explore software configuration
Mike Meyers A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs
Modems
At some point in the early days of computing, some bright guy or gal noticed a colleague talking on a telephone, glanced down at a PC, and then put two and two together: why not use telephone lines for data communication The basic problem with this idea is that traditional telephone lines use analog signals, while computers use digital signals (Figure 226) Creating a dial-up network required equipment that could turn digital data into an analog signal to send it over the telephone line, and then turn it back into digital data when it reached the other end of the connection A device called a modem solved this dilemma Modems enable computers to talk to each other via standard commercial telephone lines by converting analog signals to digital signals, and vice versa The term modem is short for MOdulator/DEModulator, a description of transforming the signals Telephone wires transfer data via ana- Figure 226 Analog signals used by a telephone line versus digital signals used by the computer log signals that continuously change voltages on a wire Computers hate analog signals Instead, they need digital signals, voltages that are either on or off, meaning the wire has voltage present or it does not Computers, being binary by nature, use only two states of voltage: zero volts and positive volts Modems take analog signals from telephone lines and turn them into digital signals that the PC can understand (Figure 227) Modems also take digital signals from the PC and convert them into analog signals for the outgoing telephone line A modem does what s called se- Figure 227 Modem converting analog signal to digital signal rial communication: It transmits data as a series of individual ones and zeroes The CPU can t process data this way It needs parallel communication, transmitting and receiving data in discrete 8-bit chunks (Figure 228) The individual serial bits of data are converted into 8-bit parallel data that the PC can understand through the universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) chip (Figure 229)
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