The RF in RFID in Software

Create Quick Response Code in Software The RF in RFID

CHAPTER 2 The RF in RFID
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We will discuss two different link budgets the forward link and the combined forward and return link budgets because the requirements for forward link are different from those of return link The forward link, from interrogator to tag, needs to power the passive tag and also transmit data, while the return link, from tag to interrogator, needs only to transmit data So we will calculate the forward link budget and compute the maximum range at which a passive tag can be powered The passive tags do not have their own power source and depend on the power received from the radio waves from the interrogator
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For more about passive tags, see 3
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The combined forward and return link budget will help calculate the maximum distance between the interrogator antenna and the tag at which the interrogator can decode the signals reflected from the tag, also called the read range By comparing these two distances, you can determine the limiting factor for obtaining the maximum read range You can calculate the maximum distance at which a passive tag can be powered A passive tag must receive a certain minimum amount of power to operate The amount depends on the type of processes used in manufacturing the integrated circuit on the tag A typical power requirement for a commonly available tag is 100 W ( 10 dBm) Typical power from an interrogator, without considering antenna gain, is 1 W (30 dBm) This means you can sustain a 40 dB free path loss from interrogator to tag, ignoring any interference A typical passive tag operating in the UHF frequency range has an antenna with an effective collection area of approximately /35 per side For simplicity, we use the 900 MHz frequency in this example You now have all the parameters, so you can calculate the distance at which the tag can be powered:
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300 / 900 Tag area = A = = 0009 sq meter 35 35
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A Path loss = 40 dB = 10 4 = 2 4 r
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0009 27 meters 9 feet 4 ( 4 ) 10
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According to the assumptions used for the calculations, 9 feet is the maximum distance at which a tag can be powered Beyond this distance, the tag will not collect enough power to run its IC and thus it cannot be detected by the interrogator You can increase this distance by employing a higher gain interrogator antenna, increasing the tag antenna effective area, reducing the power requirements of the tag IC, or some combination of these solutions Typical range for this type of tag is about 15 to 16 feet (4 to 5 meters) when used with a 6 dB gain interrogator antenna You can now calculate the maximum range at which a reader can detect the tag if it is not restricted by the requirements of the power You again start with 1 W power (PTX) from the interrogator and a tag antenna collection area (ARX) of 0009 square meter Assume that the interrogator antenna s effective collection area (ASC) is 0009 square meter The typical interrogator in UHF frequency using On-Off Keying (OOK) encoding requires a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB to detect data (interrogator sensitivity) The typical data rate for this system is approximately 100 Kbps, giving the bandwidth of the signal at around 300 kHz Now you calculate the noise floor, power of noise, at 300 kHz The noise power into a 50 ohm resistor at room temperature is 174 dBm/Hz For 300 kHz, it is 174 dBm 300,000 (approximately 55 dB) Noise floor at the signal frequency of 300 kHz = 174 dBm + 55 dB = 119 dBm The signal power required = Noise floor + Interrogator sensitivity = 119 dBm + 12 dB = 107 dBm (2 10 14W) This is the minimum power (PRX) that must be received by the interrogator from the tag You now have all the values you need to calculate the maximum read range You will use free space path loss from the interrogator to the tag and then back from the tag to the interrogator
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