java barcode reader from image Managing Users and Controlling Access in Software

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Managing Users and Controlling Access
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When MySQL encounters a request for an administrative action RELOAD, PROCESS, and so forth by a user, it decides whether to permit that action based solely on the corresponding permissions for that user in the user table None of the other grant tables are consulted to make this determination This is because these administrative privileges apply to the system as a whole and not to specific databases or tables; therefore, the corresponding columns make an appearance in the user table only
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What Default Privileges Does MySQL Come With
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Out of the box, MySQL:
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PART II
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Gives the client connecting as root@localhost complete access to all databases on the system Gives clients connecting as %@localhost complete access to the test database Denies access to all clients connecting from other hosts
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Managing User Privileges
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MySQL offers two methods of altering user privileges in the grant tables you can either use INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE DML queries to hand-alter the information in the tables or you can use the GRANT and REVOKE commands The latter is the preferred method; direct modification of the grant tables is advisable only for unusual tasks or situations, and is generally not recommended
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Granting and Revoking Privileges
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To illustrate the GRANT command in action, consider the following example, which assigns SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges on the table db1airport to the user supervisor@localhost with password timber :
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mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE ON db1airport -> TO 'supervisor'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'timber'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
MySQL allows the use of the * wildcard when referring to databases and tables This next example assigns RELOAD, PROCESS, SELECT, DELETE, and INSERT privileges on all databases to the user admin@medusaexamplecom:
mysql> GRANT RELOAD, PROCESS, SELECT, DELETE, INSERT ON ** -> TO 'admin'@'medusaexamplecom' IDENTIFIED BY 'secret'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
This next example assigns SELECT privileges on the table db1flightdep to the supervisor user only:
mysql> GRANT SELECT ON db1employees TO 'supervisor'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
Part II:
Administration
This next example takes things one step further, assigning SELECT and UPDATE privileges to specific fields of the airport table to editor@localhost and supervisor@localhost, respectively:
mysql> GRANT SELECT (RegNum, LastMaintEnd) -> ON db1aircraft TO 'editor'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec) mysql> GRANT -> SELECT (RegNum, LastMaintEnd, NextMaintBegin, NextMaintEnd), -> UPDATE (NextMaintBegin, NextMaintEnd) ON db1aircraft -> TO 'supervisor'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
The GRANT command can also be used to grant or deny access to stored procedures and functions Here s an example, which allows editor@localhost to execute the getFlightsPerDay() function:
mysql> GRANT EXECUTE ON FUNCTION db1getFlightsPerDay -> TO 'editor'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
Note The tables, fields, and procedures named in the GRANT command must exist prior to
assigning corresponding table-level, field-level, and procedure-level privileges However, this rule does not hold true when dealing with database-level privileges MySQL permits you to assign database-level privileges, even if the corresponding database does not exist This difference in treatment of table- and database-level privileges is a common cause of error, so be forewarned!
The REVOKE command does the opposite of the GRANT command, making it possible to revoke privileges assigned to a user Consider the following example, which rescinds the INSERT and UPDATE privileges granted to supervisor@localhost:
mysql> REVOKE INSERT, UPDATE ON db1airport -> FROM 'supervisor'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
The following command rescinds tim@localhost s CREATE and DROP rights on the db1 database:
mysql> REVOKE CREATE, DROP ON db1* FROM 'tim'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
And this one takes away the UPDATE rights to the aircraft table previously granted to supervisor@localhost:
mysql> REVOKE UPDATE (NextMaintBegin, NextMaintEnd) -> ON db1aircraft FROM 'supervisor'@'localhost'; Query OK, 0 rows affected (001 sec)
11:
Managing Users and Controlling Access
There s one other important point to note about the GRANT and REVOKE commands When the GRANT command is invoked for a particular user, it automatically creates an entry for that user in the user table, if one does not already exist However, a REVOKE command does not delete that entry from the user table, even if its invocation results in all the user s privileges being stripped Thus, though a user record can be automatically added to the system via GRANT, it is never automatically removed using REVOKE To remove a user record, use the DROP USER command, explained in the section Working with User Accounts and Passwords
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