free java barcode reader api Understanding System Security in Software

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Understanding System Security
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TABLE 11-1
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Components of the Windows Security Model
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Security Subsystem Component Description
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WinLogon Local security authority (LSA) User interface provided for interactive logon The WinLogon presents the logon screen when the user presses ctrl-alt-del Manages local security policies and user authentication The LSA is also responsible for generating the access token during the authentication process and writing events to the audit log when an alert is red by the security reference monitor, based on the audit policy Veri es that a user has the appropriate permissions or rights to access an object It also enforces the audit policy provided by the LSA A service that is used to verify the credentials used during logon against the SAM database Handles authentication services for LSA on a local Windows system The SAM is the database of user and group machine accounts on a local Windows system such as Windows XP The SAM is typically used in a peer-to-peer Windows network Microsoft s Directory Service in Windows 2000/2003 server Active Directory is the name given to the network account database used to store all user accounts and groups that may access network resources The Active Directory database resides on domain controllers and is kept synchronized
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Security reference monitor NetLogon Security accounts manager (SAM)
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The SAM database is the name of the local database of user accounts on a Windows 2000/XP system
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that is not a domain controller A domain controller does not have a SAM database; it holds the Active Directory database
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The local LSA generate an access token, which contains the user account, any groups the user is a member of, and any rights the user might have The access token is associated with the user, and the Windows Explorer interface is started The access token is assigned to any programs that are started by the user This is important because if the user is not allowed to access a resource, she will be unable to access the resource by starting an application Each application has the same security context as the user, because the access token is applied to the running program Figure 11-2 displays this logon process
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Network Security
FIGURE 11-2
7 Access token Winlogon 1 6 LSA 2 5 4
Logging into a local SAM database
Netlogon 3 SAM database
When logging onto the network, the logon process differs dramatically because when logging onto the network users are authenticated by the Active Directory database and not the SAM database Active Directory uses an authentication service known as Kerberos to log a user onto the network The following is a general outline of the steps involved when logging onto the network using an Active Directory account and Kerberos authentication:
Press ctrl-alt-del The WINLOGON process displays the username and password dialog User enters a username, password, and a domain to log on to The logon credentials are passed to the LSA, which then queries DNS for a domain controller that can authenticate the user The LSA then contacts the key distribution center (KDC) on the domain controller and requests a session ticket Kerberos contacts Active Directory to authenticate the user Upon authentication, Kerberos retrieves the user s universal group membership from the global catalog server After the user has been authenticated against Active Directory and all group membership has been determined, Kerberos sends a session ticket to the client that contains the user account s SID and any group memberships The LSA then sends that session ticket to the KDC and requests a session ticket for the local workstation
You will not be required to know all the steps during the logon process, but be aware that Kerberos is a ticket-granting service
Understanding System Security
Kerberos sends a session ticket for the local system and the LSA then constructs an access token, which is assigned to any processes that the user starts
Access Tokens
When a user logs onto a system or network, as part of the logon process an access token is created for the user and is used to determine whether a user should be allowed to access a resource or perform an operating system task The token maintains all the information required for resource validation and includes the following information:
Security identi er (SID): A SID is a unique number assigned to the user The SID is what Windows uses to identify the user instead of the actual username We know Bob as the bsmith user account, but Windows knows Bob as his SID, which looks something like S-1-5-21-2752813485-7882706931974236881-116 Group security identi ers: The access token contains a list of any groups that the user is a member of This is important because when a user double-clicks a resource, the resource is normally con gured with permissions assigned to groups Windows checks to see which groups the user is a member of through the access token and then checks to see if one of those groups has permission to the resource being accessed If a group that is contained in the access token is allowed access to the resource, the user will gain access to the resource Primary group security identi er: Some networking environments allow a user to be a member of only one group In the Microsoft world, a user is allowed to be a member of multiple groups However, to be compatible with the single group environments, you can ag the group you would like Windows to report as the only group the user is a member of This is known as the primary group Access rights: During the logon process, Windows determines the rights you have within the operating system and stores the list of your rights within the access token For example, if you have the Change the System Time right, that information will be stored in the access token during the logon process If you try to change the time on the computer, your access token is checked for that right; if the right is in the access token, you would be allowed to change the system time
It is important to note that the access token is recreated only at logon, so if you add a user to a new group, the user would need to log out and log on again for the access token to contain the new group in the group membership list After logging
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