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One of the pitfalls of networking environments is that the electrical signal that is traveling the wire is weakened over distance as a result of outside interference Eventually, if two systems are too far from one another, the signal is so weak that by the time it reaches the other side it is unreadable This is where repeaters come in
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If your network layout exceeds the normal speci cations of the cable, you can use repeaters to allow the signal to travel the distance by placing the repeaters at different points in the Because a repeater works network For example, if you are using thinnet with the electrical signal, it is considered a cabling, you know that thinnet is limited to layer-1 device 185 m But what if you want to connect two systems together that are 235 m apart You would place a repeater somewhere before the 185-m mark so that the repeater will regenerate or rebuild, the signal, allowing it to travel the extra difference Figure 3-18 shows a signal that is weakened over distance but is regenerated through the use of a repeater
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FIGURE 3-18
Using a repeater to regenerate the signal
Repeater Signal gets weaker with distance Repeater rebuilds the signal so the signal can travel a greater distance
Bridges and Switches
CERTIFICATION OBJECTIVE 303
Bridges and Switches
Now that we have discussed some of the popular layer-1 devices, let s take a look at some popular layer-2 devices Layer-2 devices are a little smarter than layer-1 devices in the sense that they actually can make decisions about where the electrical signal needs to go Remember that a hub, which is a layer-1 device, would forward the signal to all ports on the hub, which will lead to traf c problems as you start adding hubs to the topology This section will introduce you to two layer-2 devices that often are used to lter network traf c By ltering network traf c, we are conserving precious bandwidth on the network, which will have a huge impact on the overall performance of the network
Bridges
A bridge is a network connectivity device that is used to break the network down into multiple network segments A bridge runs at layer 2, the data link layer, and is used to lter traf c by only forwarding traf c to the destination network segment Figure 3-19 shows an example of a bridged network
FIGURE 3-19
A bridged network with three segments
B Segment 3 Workstation A Bridge Table Workstation 00-B0-D0-B1-ED-51 00-0D-60-48-53-9E 00-AO-C9-C3-D2-E2 Segment 3 2 1
Workstation Segment 1 C D Bridge Segment 2 E F
Workstation
Workstation
Workstation
Workstation
3:
Networking Components
Let s look at an example of how a bridge lters network traf c Assume that you have just completed connecting the bridge to the network segments shown in Figure 3-19 When Workstation A sends data to Workstation F, the data will go out the network card of Workstation A and will travel the full length of segment 3 in both directions The signal will reach the bridge, and the bridge will look at the destination MAC address of the packet Once the bridge looks at the destination MAC address, it will compare that MAC address with the MAC addresses in its bridging table The bridging table is a table in memory that lists all known MAC addresses and which network segment that MAC address lives on This table is critical to the bridge s ltering features Since this is the rst piece of data sent on the network, the MAC address for Workstation F is not in the bridging table, so the bridge will need to forward the data to both segment 1 and segment 2 It will not forward the information to network segment 3 because that is where the data came from, and if Workstation F existed on that network, it would already have the data When the bridge received the initial data from Workstation A, it recorded the MAC address of Workstation A and the network segment that Workstation A resides on in the bridging table This way if anyone sends data to Workstation A, the bridge will have an entry for Workstation A in the bridging table, and the bridge will forward the data only to network segment 3 and not to the other segments Also note that when Workstation F replies to Workstation A, the data will need to pass through the bridge, so the bridge will know what network segment Workstation F resides on and will record that MAC address in the bridging table Over time, the bridging table will be lled with MAC addresses and their associated network segments In our example, after the bridging table has been constructed, if Workstation A sends data to Workstation C, the data will reach the bridge and the bridge will forward the data only to network segment 1 This prevents network segment 2 from being congested with the traf c (shown in Figure 3-20)
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