Understanding Subnetting in Software

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Understanding Subnetting
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the number of bits to work with but once you actually work with the bits, you always work from left to right The next thing you want to do is convert all those octets to decimal values again; then you will have the new subnet mask of the two networks (subnets) we are building If you convert the new binary value in the preceding table of 1111111111 0000000000000000000000, you should get 25519200 as the new subnet mask of your two new subnets Write that number down because it will be needed later The next step is to calculate the IP ranges for the two different networks, but before that, you should be aware that there are ve pieces of information you should know about each network when your calculations are over These ve pieces of information are:
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New subnet mask Network ID: all host bits set to zero First Valid Address: low-order host bit set to 1; all other host bits are zero Broadcast Address: all host bits set to 1 Last Valid Address: low-order host bit set to 0; all other host bits are 1
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We know that the new subnet mask is 25519200, so we can start by calculating the network ID of each of the two subnets To determine each piece of information listed previously, you need to determine all of the on /off states of the number of bits that you have stolen For example, two bits were stolen to create more networks so there are four possible on /off states with two bits 00, 01, 10, and 11 As calculated in your binary work area, it would look like the following table First Octet (Decimal) Original IP
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Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet (Binary) (Binary) (Binary)
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0 00000000 01000000 10000000 11000000 0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
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The next thing to do after calculating all of the on /off state combinations of two bits is to add in the remaining 0s to the bits that represent the host ID portion Remember that the original network ID was 10000, so the rst octet will start with
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Subnetting and Routing
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10, no matter what you change in the binary, because you are starting your work with the second octet After you ll in the host bits with all zeros, the next thing you need to do is to cross out the rst and last lines; they are illegal, because the subnetted bits are all 0s and all 1s With the two illegal addresses crossed out, there are only two lines remaining, each representing one of the two networks This work is shown in the following table
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First Octet (Decimal) Original IP
Second Octet (Binary)
0 00000000 01000000 10000000 11000000
Third Octet (Binary)
0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
Fourth Octet (Binary)
0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
The next step is to bring the 10 down to the rst octet; each network ID will start with 10 because that is what it was originally After bringing the 10 down in the rst octet, you then calculate the network ID of each of the two networks by leaving all host bits set to zero (the nonbolded bits) as shown in the following table First Octet Second Octet (Decimal) (Binary) Original IP
10 10 10 10 10 0 00000000 01000000 10000000 11000000
Third Octet (Binary)
0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
Fourth Octet (Binary)
0 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
Calculation
106400 1012800
In this example, because the two high-order bits are being set, there will be network IDs of 106400 and 1012800 The next number, which can be calculated easily, is the rst valid address that can be assigned to a host on each of these networks To calculate the rst valid address you simply enable the lowest-order bit
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